Table 1

Mean SEI and 95% CIs at Wave 2/3 by explanatory factors (N=4312)

SEI
Explanatory factorMean95% CI
Wave 1/2 
SRH
 Stable good3.803.69 to 3.91
 Good→poor4.99***4.68 to 5.30
 Poor→good4.93***4.61 to 5.25
 Stable poor5.75***5.54 to 6.96
LLTI
 Stable no LLTI3.833.72 to 3.95
 LLTI onset4.50***4.19 to 4.82
 LLTI recovery4.47***4.20 to 4.73
 Stable LLTI5.34***5.16 to 5.51
GHQ
 Stable low4.134.02 to 4.24
 Low→high4.99***4.68 to 5.30
 High→low4.86***4.54 to 5.17
 Stable high5.87***5.54 to 6.19
Wave 1
Gender
 Female4.604.47 to 4.72
 Male4.20***4.08 to 4.32
Age (years)
 <754.043.94 to 4.14
 ≥755.19***4.99 to 5.39
Ethnicity
 White4.404.30 to 4.49
 Non-white5.26**4.71 to 5.81
Country of birth
 UK4.394.29 to 4.49
 Elsewhere4.80*4.43 to 5.18
Marital status
 Married3.683.56 to 3.79
 Living as a couple3.893.38 to 4.41
 Single never married6.36***5.95 to 6.77
 Separated or divorced5.78***5.54 to 6.03
 Widowed5.75***5.54 to 5.95
Job status
 In work3.773.58 to 3.96
 Not in work4.51***4.40 to 4.62
Education
 Degree3.072.87 to 3.27
 Other higher3.60**3.36 to 3.84
 A level3.93***3.70 to 4.16
 GCSE3.68***3.46 to 3.90
 Other4.71***4.50 to 4.92
 None5.41***5.23 to 5.59
Social class
 Man and Prof3.613.46 to 3.77
 Intermediate4.22***4.00 to 4.44
 Small emp. and own acc.4.48***4.16 to 4.80
 Lower supervisory and tech.4.80***4.51 to 5.10
 Semiroutine and routine5.09***4.93 to 5.26
 Never had a job4.65***4.25 to 5.05
Government office region
 South East3.933.64 to 4.22
 North East4.66**4.30 to 5.02
 North West4.61**4.28 to 4.94
 Yorkshire and the Humber4.41*4.13 to 4.69
 East Midlands4.80***4.45 to 5.15
 West Midlands4.57**4.22 to 4.91
 East of England4.163.96 to 4.36
 London4.40*4.09 to 4.71
 South West4.223.90 to 4.54
 Scotland4.59*4.17 to 5.01
 Wales4.72**4.37 to 5.07
 Northern Ireland4.76**4.22 to 5.29
Area type
 Urban4.414.29 to 4.53
 Rural4.434.24 to 4.61
Car access
 Yes3.923.83 to 4.02
 No6.30***6.07 to 6.53
Mobile phone
 Yes4.093.99 to 4.19
 No5.50***5.27 to 5.73
Internet use
 Often3.413.29 to to 3.54
 Sometimes3.77**3.55 to 3.99
 Never5.14***5.01 to 5.27
  • unweighted N; weighted means.

  • Linear regression models test for significance of mean differences: * p<0.05, ** p<0.01, *** p<0.001.

  • GHQ, 12 item General Health Questionnaire; LLTI, limiting long-term illness/disability; SEI, Social Exclusion Index; SRH, self-rated health.