Table 3

Return on investment of national public health programmes: specific studies

ReferenceInterventionPopulationBenefit-cost ratioReturn on investmentCost perspectiveDiscount rateTime horizonStudy quality
Abelson et al10Hib vaccinationAustralia1.06Medical5%15 years++
Abelson et al10HIV/AIDS preventionAustralia4Medical5%25 years++
Abelson et al10Measles vaccinationAustralia167Medical5%33 years++
Abelson et al10Programmes to reduce rates of coronary heart diseaseAustralia11Medical5%40 years++
Abelson et al10Programmes to reduce tobacco consumptionAustralia2Medical5%40 years++
Abelson et al10Road safety campaignsAustralia3Medical5%40 years++
Boccalini et al32Universal hepatitis B vaccinationItaly€2.78Medical and societal3%20 years++
Bonin et al58Parenting programmes for the prevention of persistent conduct disordersEngland7.89Medical and societal3.5%35 years++
Drummond11Needle exchangeAustralia1.2Public health5%Lifetime++
Evans-Lacko et al12Antistigma social marketing campaignEngland£0.7 to £1.90UnclearNone1 year-
Garpenholt et al38Hib vaccinationSweden1.59Societal5%20 years++
Gortmaker et al15Sugar sweetened beverage taxUSA$55Medical3%10 years++
Gortmaker et al15Eliminating tax subsidy of nutritionally poor food advertising to childrenUSA$38Medical3%10 years++
Gould8Lead paint controlUSA$17 to $221Medical and societalNoneUnclear
Holtgrave et al34HIV counselling, testing, referral and partner notification servicesUSA20.09Societal6%Lifetime++
Hutchinson et al35Expanded HIV testingUSA$1.46 to $2.01Health sector3%Lifetime++
Kwon et al36Needle exchangeAustralia$A1.3 to $A5.5Health sector3%Lifetime++
Lokkerbol et al55Telemedicine for depressionThe Netherlands€1.45 to €1.76Medical1.5% costs, 4% effects5 years++
McGuire et al14Family planning servicesUK11.09 to 29.39Medical6%Lifetime++
Miller et al16Booster seats for 4–7 years oldsUSA8.6Medical3%3 years++
Nguyen et al37Needle exchangeUSA$3.48MedicalNone1 year+
Nichol et al7Influenza vaccination of healthy workersUSA$21.27 to +$174.32Societal3%1 year+
Romano et al40Folic acid fortification of grainUSA4.3 to 6.1Human capital4%Lifetime++
Trust for America13Primary and secondary prevention programmesUSA$6.2Medical0%10–20 years+
Wang et al50Universal school nursing servicesUSA$2.20SocietalNone1 year+
White et al28MMR vaccinationUSA14Medical10%Lifetime++
Ding et al30Hospital-based postpartum influenza vaccinationUSA$1.7Medical and societal3%1 year++
Zhou et al38Hib vaccinationUSA5.4Medical and societal3%Lifetime++
  • Hib, haemophilus influenzae type b; MMR, measles, mumps and rubella.