Table 2

Definition-driven study characteristics

StudyAdversityAdaptationSubsamplePrevalence of resilience (%)
Boe et al15DisasterNo PTSD58.3
Bonanno et al16*Spousal bereavementNo or low† depression45.9
Bonanno et al17*Spousal bereavementNo or low† depression45.9
Ho et al18Hereditary cancer riskBelow HADS threshold of 7/8HADS—anxiety66.7
Jaffee19Childhood maltreatmentMeet or exceed national norms for mental health, academic achievement and social competence37–49
Mlinac et al20External stressors or life events common to late lifeCoaches felt that participants met their goals despite more significant stressors28.6
Netuveli et al21Functional limitation, bereavement, marital separation, povertyReturn to preadversity GHQ scores postadversity14.3
Solomon et al22War veteransNo PTSDControl veterans88.8
Werner4Offspring of alcoholicsNo coping problems at age 1859.2
  • *Same data set used.

  • †<80th centile z-scores on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies—depression scale.50

  • A prototypical resilience trajectory, that is, decreasing functioning followed by a return to pre-event functioning, was also identified.38

  • GHQ, General Health Questionnaire; HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale;51 POWs, prisoners of war; PTSD, post-traumatic stress disorder.