Table 1

Population, intervention components and outcomes of the included studies considering complex interventions

ReferencesFirst author and yearPopulationVaccine (s)InequalitySample (intervention)Intervention nameIntervention componentsOutcome (effect measures and/or 95% CI)
Identification or targeting of CYP in risk groupsPromotional materials (eg, posters or media campaign)Education children's parents or young people directlyPatient reminder/recall and/or tracking and surveillanceOutreach (eg, home visits)HCW training (. allied professionals)HCW promptsAdditional services (eg, clinics)Standing Orders*Community involvement
51Findley et al, 2008Children 19–35 monthsScheduleUrban, ethnicity, low income10 857 (895)Start rightYYYYYY11.1% higher uptake and 53% more likely to be UTD (p<0.01, no CI)
52Fu et al, 2012Children aged <24 monthsScheduleUrban, ethnicity, low income3945 (1999)YYYYYYY16% increase in uptake to 87% (p<0.001, no CI)
53Suryadevara et al, 2013CYP<19 yearsScheduleLow income/deprived1531YYYYYIncrease in coverage In enrolled children from 28% to 40%
54Isaac et al, 2015High-risk infants identified at birthScheduleUrban, ethnicity, low income9746 (4562)Family FirstYYYIntervention risk ratio 1.06 for being UTD (CI 1.03 to 1.08).
55Hambidge et al, 2009New-born infants until 15 months oldScheduleUrban, ethnicity, low income811YYYYYIntervention OR of 1.6 for being UTD (CI 1.2 to 2.1)
56Cockman et al, 2011Children aged 2 yearsMMRUrban, ethnicity, low income36 practicesYYYYYA significant quarterly coverage increase of 1.86%
57Thomas et al, 2008Aboriginal infants7-valent PCVEthnicityEcologicalYYYYYY10% increase in coverage to 50% (no statistical analysis)
58, 59Potts et al., 2014; Sinka et al, 2013.Girls aged 12–13, with catch-up for under 18s.HPVDeprivation220 000YYYYYEqual uptake by deprivation quintile for first dose, with uptake reducing for doses 2 and 3.
60Cates et al, 2011Girls aged 9–19HPVUrban, low income, ethnicity100 counties (4 counties)YYYDifferent responses across intervention sites, no significant difference overall.
61Cates et al, 2014Men aged 11–12HPVUrban, low income, ethnicity28 counties (13 counties)Protect HimYYIntervention 34% more likely to be vaccinated (p<0.002), with higher uptake in non-Hispanic black population.
62Moss et al, 2012Adolescents aged 12–17ScheduleUrban, low income, ethnicity17 health centresAFIX (by proxy)Y (to increase use of complex intervention)Intervention 1.1% increase in being UTD across the schedule 1 month later (to 32.2%, p=0.001)
63Chung et al, 2015Adolescents aged 11–18Tdap, Men, HPVUrban/rural5 counties (1 county, 7 health centres)YYYIncrease in the first dose HPV in 11–12 year olds (OR 1.21, CI 1.01 to 1.50), quad men (OR 2.23, CI 1.7 to 2.9) and in 13 to 19 year olds HPV vaccine completion in men (OR 1.45, CI 1.02 to 2.05).
64, 65Nowalk et al, 2014; Zimmerman et al, 2014CYP aged 6 months to 18 yearsInfluenzaEthnicity24 practicesFour PillarsYYYYYYYGreater increase in uptake in intervention group (9.9% vs 4.2% in controls, p<0.001) and higher in white children (16.7%, p<0.05)
66Logue et al 2011Children and adults aged >6 monthsInfluenzaUrban, low income, ethnicity5061YYYYIncrease in uptake in 3–8 year olds (15%, p<0.05) and 9–17 year olds (19%, p<0.05), but not younger children.
  • *Standing orders allow non-prescribing health professionals to give medicines including vaccinations without a doctor's prescription in certain situations.

  • CYP, children and young people; HCW, healthcare workers, for example, doctors, nurses or allied health professionals; HPV, human papillomavirus vaccination; MMR, measles, mumps and rubella vaccination; PCV, pneumococcal vaccination; UTD, up-to-date with all recommended vaccines for age.