Table 3

Meta-analysis of violence outcomes in PYD interventions

OutcomesEffect size (95% CI)knI2 (%), programme levelI2 (%), outcome levelCochran's Q (df, p Value)
Violence, all time points0.021 (−0.050 to 0.093)31001812.27 (9, 0.20)
Violence, postintervention0.076 (0.013 to 0.140)37004.94 (5, 0.55)
  • K, number of studies; n, number of effect sizes; PYD, positive youth development.