Table 1

Characteristics of the study population

Characteristics*†40 target districtsComparably deprived districts PSM ‘narrow’‡Comparably deprived districts PSM ‘broad’‡Rest of the Netherlands
Numbers (n)
 Four-digit postcodes83773033402
 Individuals in total14451574616344 802
Individuals per half-year (mean±SD)90±13.298±14.7385±32.22800±287.8
Age (mean±SD)46.1±17.545.6±16.646.4±16.647.0±16.8
Sex (%)
Household composition (%)
Partner/married with child(ren)35.536.535.941.0
Partner/married without child(ren)24.628.929.834.8
Single without child(ren)27.024.725.818.4
Single with child(ren)
Ethnicity (%)
Ethnic Dutch64.074.078.687.5
Non-Dutch, Western9.
Non-Dutch, non-Western23.
Non-Dutch, origin unknown3.
Education (%)
Lower secondary26.021.120.722.8
Upper secondary30.228.831.737.0
Income (%)
First quintile (<€15 865)
Second quintile (€15 865–€20 000)24.121.620.620.0
Third quintile (€20 000–€24 404)18.018.919.920.0
Fourth quintile (€24 404–€30 900)15.016.317.620.0
Fifth quintile (> €30 900)10.818.018.019.7
  • *Characteristics represent average values over the period 2004–2011.

  • †Characteristics are weighted for age, gender, marital status, household size, urbanisation, province, part of the country and month of interview.

  • ‡Control districts that are similar to the target districts with regard to their liveability at the moment the implementation of the District Approach started (mid-2008).

  • PSM, propensity score matching.