Table 1

Summary of quantitative synthesis to estimate overall mean effect of CWF cessation on DMFT, deft, DMFS, defs, based on estimates pooled across time points within age groups within each study

Outcome/study typeTotal number of studies and comparisonsEligible number of studies and comparisonsResults/Comments
Mean (SD)
Number of participants (n)
DMFT-no-comparison communityStudies: n=6
Comparisons: n=52
Studies: n=3 (Cuba;27 Czechoslovakia;28 29 East Germany25 26)
Comparisons: n=18
Significant decrease in DMFT postcessation:−1.02 (−1.42, −0.62), n=9503
DMFT-comparison community*Studies: n=3
Comparisons: n=38
Studies: n=3 (Stranraer, Scotland;31–34 Netherlands;38 39 East Germany25 26)
Comparisons: n=27
Significant increase in DMFT postcessation: 0.54 (0.24, 0.84), n=111 436
deft-no-comparison communityStudies: n=5
Comparisons: n=15
Studies: n=2 (Wick, Scotland;37 China35 36)
Comparisons: n=10
Significant increase in deft postcessation: 0.49 (0.11, 0.87), n=3947
deft-comparison community*Studies: n=2
Comparisons: n=5
Studies: n=1 (Stranraer, Scotland31–34)
Comparisons: n=2
Overall effect not estimated (only 1 study)
DMFS-no-comparison communityStudies: n=1
Comparisons: n=4
Studies: n=1 (Cuba27)
Comparisons: n=4
Overall effect not estimated (only 1 study)
DMFS-comparison community*Studies: n=3
Comparisons: n=19
Studies: n=3 (Finland;16 18 Canada;19 20 Netherlands38)
Comparisons: n=13
Overall effect estimated but not interpreted because studies include both positive and negative controls†
defs-no-comparison communityStudies: n=1
Comparisons: n=2
Studies: n=1 (Wick, Scotland37)
Comparisons: n=2
Overall effect not estimated (only 1 study)
defs-comparison community*Studies: n=1
Comparisons: n=6
Studies: n=1 (Finland17 18)
Comparisons: n=3
Overall effect not estimated (only 1 study)
TotalComparisons: n=141Comparisons: n=83
  • Comparison=any pair of precessation—postcessation data (any time frame, any age group); total=141.

  • Studies=intervention (instance of CWF cessation); total n=12.

  • Eligible studies/comparisons=contained non-missing (or non-imputable) data on mean, SD, and sample size (n).

  • DMFT, deft=decayed, missing, filled teeth (permanent, primary).

  • DMFS, defs=decayed, missing/extracted, filled tooth surfaces (permanent, primary).

  • Results are from random effects model.

  • *SD for change score was imputed, following Cochrane collaboration procedure10.

  • †Positive control: comparison community has CWF in place; negative control: comparison community does not have CWF in place.