Table 1

Pooled relative risks of the risk of mortality for the highest level visual impairment versus no visual impairment

Heterogeneity
VariableStudies (n)RR95% CII2, %p Value
Worst vs normal
 All studies291.361.25 to 1.4662.4<0.001
 Older than 65181.281.18 to 1.3955.70.002
 Men71.291.07 to 1.5460.40.019
 Women91.351.14 to 1.6171.00.001
Subgroup analyses
Continent
 North America91.291.16 to 1.4466.70.002
 Oceania41.441.26 to 1.650.00.686
 Asia71.801.42 to 2.2667.30.005
 Europe91.221.03 to 1.4346.30.061
Follow-up duration, year
 ≤591.351.15 to 1.5868.40.001
 5–661.261.06 to 1.4860.00.029
 6–871.661.41 to 1.9550.40.060
 >871.221.12 to 1.320.00.745
VI assessment
 ICD code31.551.15 to 2.0977.60.012
 Acuity charts151.361.16 to 1.5965.7<0.001
 Self-report71.441.34 to 1.560.00.727
 Others41.161.05 to 1.270.00.533
  • ICD, International Statistical Classification of Diseases; RR, relative risk; VI, visual impairment.