Table 1

Existing frameworks and guidance for public health intervention development

Guidance/frameworkDescriptionPossible limitations
Intervention mapping6Extremely rigorous and elaborate approach to intervention development through six stepsIndividual, social-psychological orientation. Highly technical, prescriptive, can require years to implement, difficult to operationalise
Conceptual framework for planning intervention-related research7Specifies nine steps in developing and evaluating public health interventionsInsufficient detail in steps for operationalising
PRECEDE–PROCEED model8Socioecological approach. Planning phase is PRECEDE; evaluation is PROCEED. Extensively data driven and practical applicationMay require great technical skill, time and money. Little detail on intervention development
Framework for design and evaluation of complex interventions to improve health.9Useful guide to development of interventions within the context of healthcare servicesFocus on healthcare not public health. Little detail on intervention development
MRC guidance for the development and evaluation of Complex interventions4Identifies three broad stages of intervention development: developing theory, modelling process and outcomes and assessing feasibilityDoes not break down three stages any further. Primarily devoted to evaluation
Design for behaviour change framework10For community development workers in low income countries. Focuses on determinants, facilitators and barriers to intended behaviour to plan behaviour change projects strategicallySequence of steps advocated in part illogical and some of the terminology confusing