Table 2

Associations between work-family LCTs and metabolic risk factors in the National Child Development Study 1958 British birth cohort

Model 1: gender-adjustedModel 2: model 1+early life factors*Model 3: model 2+adult mediators†
Waist circumference (n=7791)Reg coefficient95% CIReg coefficient95% CIReg coefficient95% CI
Work, Later FamilyRefRefRef
Work, Cohabitation, Later Parents−0.59−1.83 to 0.66−1.25−2.56 to 0.07−1.26−2.57 to 0.06
Work, Marriage, Non-Parent−0.19−1.29 to 0.900.06−1.10 to 1.21−0.10−1.25 to 1.05
Work, Earlier Family1.981.17 to 2.791.220.37 to 2.071.120.27 to 1.96
Later Family, Work Break−0.59−1.86 to 0.67−0.48−1.77 to 0.82−0.50−1.80 to 0.79
Work, No Family−1.01−1.99 to −0.02−0.70−1.75 to 0.34−0.75−1.79 to 0.29
Earlier Family, Work Break1.00−0.21 to 2.210.19−1.07 to 1.45−0.02−1.28 to 1.24
Part-time Work, Earlier Family0.90−0.26 to 2.070.15−1.06 to 1.360.03−1.18 to 1.23
No Paid Work, Earlier Family2.440.30 to 4.580.43−1.95 to 2.82−0.66−3.08, 1.76
Work, Divorced Parent0.25−1.32 to 1.82−0.48−2.10 to 1.15−0.60−2.23 to 1.03
Teen parent3.540.90 to 6.185.061.46 to 8.664.921.35 to 8.48
Unstable Work, No Family3.570.47 to 6.672.23−1.51 to 5.972.25−1.57 to 6.07
R2 (%)23.324.525.9
Systolic blood pressure (n=7789)Reg coefficient95% CIReg coefficient95% CIReg coefficient95% CI
Work, Later FamilyRefRefRef
Work, Cohabitation, Later Parents0.18−1.46 to 1.820.02−1.73 to 1.760.20−1.51 to 1.92
Work, Marriage, Non-Parent0.71−0.75 to 2.160.62−0.93 to 2.160.62−0.89 to 2.13
Work, Earlier Family2.311.24 to 3.381.970.84 to 3.101.400.29 to 2.51
Later Family, Work Break−0.62−2.28 to 1.05−0.50−2.23 to 1.23−0.25−1.95 to 1.45
Work, No Family−0.22−1.51 to 1.08−0.11−1.49 to 1.270.22−1.13 to 1.57
Earlier Family, Work Break1.37−0.23 to 2.970.93−0.74 to 2.610.70−0.94 to 2.34
Part-time Work, Earlier Family1.01−0.53 to 2.550.56−1.05 to 2.170.41−1.17 to 2.00
No Paid Work, Earlier Family−0.66−3.44 to 2.24−2.03−5.22 to 1.15−2.13−5.28 to 1.02
Work, Divorced Parent1.33−0.75 to 3.421.15−1.04 to 3.331.02−1.12 to 3.17
Teen parent1.33−2.16 to 4.810.82−1.84 to 5.470.24−4.29 to 4.76
Unstable Work, No Family1.19−2.82 to 5.20−0.01−4.92 to 4.91−1.99−6.94 to 2.96
R2 (%)13.513.918.4
Diastolic blood pressure (n=7789)Reg coefficient95% CIReg coefficient95% CIReg coefficient95% CI
Work, Later FamilyRefRefRef
Work, Cohabitation, Later Parents0.08−1.05 to 1.22−0.05−1.25 to 1.160.10−1.08 to 1.29
Work, Marriage, Non-Parent0.92−0.08 to 1.920.84−0.22 to 1.910.75−0.29 to 1.80
Work, Earlier Family1.410.68 to 2.151.030.25 to 1.810.65−0.11 to 1.42
Later Family, Work Break−0.43−1.58 to 0.72−0.53−1.73 to 0.67−0.43−1.61 to 0.74
Work, No Family0.09−0.80 to 0.990.0001−0.95 to 0.950.18−0.75 to 1.12
Earlier Family, Work Break0.52−0.58 to 1.620.18−0.98 to 1.34−0.002−1.14 to 1.13
Part-time Work, Earlier Family0.69−0.37 to 1.760.28−0.83 to 1.400.17−0.93 to 1.26
No Paid Work, Earlier Family−0.69−2.66 to 1.29−1.30−3.52 to 0.91−1.45−3.64 to 0.74
Work, Divorced Parent0.68−0.76 to 2.130.43−1.09 to 1.950.50−0.99 to 1.99
Teen parent2.02−0.35 to 4.381.89−1.30 to 5.081.53−1.60 to 4.67
Unstable Work, No Family−0.18−2.92 to 2.57−0.69−4.06 to 2.68−1.57−4.95 to 1.81
R2 (%)8.79.113.8
HDL cholesterol (n=6597)Per cent difference95% CIPer cent difference95% CIPer cent difference95% CI
Work, Later FamilyRefRefRef
Work, Cohabitation, Later Parents0.78−1.85 to 3.471.60−1.20 to 4.481.14−1.49 to 3.85
Work, Marriage, Non-Parent1.80−0.54 to 4.191.33−1.13 to 3.860.73−1.58 to 3.08
Work, Earlier Family−2.70−4.34 to −1.04−1.31−3.05 to 0.46−0.03−1.69 to 1.66
Later Family, Work Break0.50−2.12 to 3.200.84−1.87 to 3.140.08−2.46 to 2.69
Work, No Family1.08−1.00 to 3.210.90−1.28 to 3.140.15−1.89 to 2.23
Earlier Family, Work Break−4.22−6.65 to −1.74−2.85−5.41 to −0.22−2.55−4.97 to −0.07
Part-time Work, Earlier Family−4.21−6.53 to −1.84−3.19−5.61 to −0.71−2.68−4.97 to −0.32
No Paid Work, Earlier Family−8.70−12.93 to −4.26−5.75−10.52 to −0.73−4.93−9.57 to −0.05
Work, Divorced Parent−4.05−7.14 to −0.85−2.52−5.79 to 0.87−2.64−5.73 to 0.56
Teen parent−5.60−11.38 to 0.55−2.84−10.62 to 5.61−2.90−10.36 to 5.19
Unstable Work, No Family−5.02−10.99 to 1.36−1.68−9.00 to 6.24−3.02−10.05 to 4.56
R2 (%)12.013.823.8
Triglycerides (n=6591)Per cent difference95% CIPer cent difference95% CIPer cent difference95% CI
Work, Later FamilyRefRefRef
Work, Cohabitation, Later Parents−1.93−7.92 to 4.45−4.95−11.05 to 1.58−5.29−11.13 to 0.95
Work, Marriage, Non-Parent1.08−4.41 to 6.890.47−5.28 to 6.571.23−4.33 to 7.10
Work, Earlier Family10.105.69 to 14.696.391.96 to 11.023.46−0.69 to 7.78
Later Family, Work Break1.70−4.54 to 8.362.54−3.90 to 9.423.92−2.38 to 10.62
Work, No Family−1.36−6.16 to 3.70−1.42−6.42 to 3.89−0.37−5.26 to 4.76
Earlier Family, Work Break9.853.33 to 16.795.61−0.90 to 12.555.04−1.19 to 11.66
Part-time Work, Earlier Family7.581.47 to 14.064.54−1.63 to 11.053.56−2.30 to 9.77
No Paid Work, Earlier Family14.312.37 to 27.644.82−6.98 to 18.122.92−8.40 to 15.64
Work, Divorced Parent9.110.87 to 18.025.10−3.15 to 14.053.99−3.90 to 12.54
Teen parent18.762.82 to 37.187.51−10.82 to 29.615.82−11.61 to 26.69
Unstable Work, No Family13.59−2.92 to 32.908.87−9.85 to 31.495.29−12.65,26.79
R2 (%)14.015.222.6
HbA1c (n=6682)Reg coefficient95% CIReg coefficient95% CIReg coefficient95% CI
Work, Later FamilyRefRefRef
Work, Cohabitation, Later Parents0.110.03 to 0.180.06−0.02 to 0.140.05−0.03 to 0.12
Work, Marriage, Non-Parent0.002−0.06 to 0.070.02−0.05 to 0.090.02−0.04 to 0.09
Work, Earlier Family0.120.07 to 0.170.090.04 to 0.140.060.01 to 0.11
Later Family, Work Break0.07−0.003 to 0.150.080.01 to 0.160.090.02 to 0.16
Work, No Family0.03−0.03 to 0.090.04−0.02 to 0.100.05−0.01 to 0.11
Earlier Family, Work Break0.05−0.02 to 0.130.04−0.04 to 0.110.02−0.05 to 0.10
Part-time Work, Earlier Family0.03−0.04 to 0.100.02−0.05 to 0.090.004−0.06 to 0.07
No Paid Work, Earlier Family0.170.02 to 0.310.14−0.02 to 0.290.06−0.08 to 0.20
Work, Divorced Parent0.160.06 to 0.250.130.04 to 0.230.120.03 to 0.21
Teen parent0.10−0.07 to 0.280.05−0.18 to 0.280.03−0.19 to 0.25
Unstable Work, No Family0.17−0.01 to 0.360.15−0.07 to 0.37−0.03−0.25 to 0.19
R2 (%)1.52.08.1
  • *Adjusted for gender, father's occupational class, child health, educational attainment.

  • †Adjusted for gender, father's occupational class, child health, educational attainment, household occupational class, smoking status, exercise frequency, problem drinking and BMI.

  • BMI, body mass index; HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LCT, life course type; Reg, regression.