Table 2

Distribution of pregnancies by socioeconomic position, seven trials, all intervention years combined

TrialMumbai, urban India trial1st Bangladesh trial¶2nd Bangladesh trial¶Rural India trialNepal-Makwanpur trialNepal-Dhanusha trialMalawi trial
Trial location (implementing organisation)Slum areas in Mumbai, India (SNEHA)3 districts in rural Bangladesh (PCP)Jharkhand and Odisha state (Ekjut)Rural Nepal, Makwanpur district (MIRA)Rural Nepal, Dhanusha district (MIRA)Rural Malawi, Mchinji district (MaiMwana)
nPer centnPer centnPer centnPer centnPer centnPer centnPer cent
Total599610015 53710011 0641009594100296910013 90410011 510100
Maternal education*, years schooling
 Never went to school14572450183222202071867522097510 33975211519
 1–43235542035414938500530710163612392034
 5–103601604653304361391741184471510568501444
 11+†6151044633343167277363153
Household economic status‡
 Poorest123521762649255623228624151351312823297826
 Next-poor11752020791323982245084792931280020117110
 Middle§131222205613205219117412274420242821
 Next rich12422119691323462188092659247318442339
 Rich103217180712171115746824682753204834
Maternal age, years
 <2049282704171862171110121866311522147413
 20–24279247577837413137303734106136539639366732
 25–2919423241672729872726833080227365726271624
 30–34595101833121464131429164711611929191317
 35+16931035761867178443155444161314
Gravidity
 First pregnancy19353252803435433225562740814448932200118
 Not first pregnancy40616810 25766751968703073255786941568933482
  • The percentage of respondents with missing values for the variables of interest was very low, between 0 and 2% in each of the sites, with the exception of 6% missing values for maternal age in the rural India trial and 14% missing values for attendance in the Malawi trial.

  • *Data on maternal education were available by level and number of years of education for all trials except the one in rural India and the first Bangladesh trial. Categories were constructed such that they were as similar as possible across the sites: no education; 1–4 years of education (1–3 years for rural India and 1–5 for Bangladesh); 5–10 years of education (4–10 for rural India, 6–10 for Bangladesh); 11+ years of education.

  • †For Nepal-Makwanpur, there were only seven women with 11+ years of schooling. These were merged with the 5–10 years of schooling category.

  • ‡We made as equally sized wealth groups (quintiles) in each site as possible, but in some sites there remained considerable population heaping in some wealth categories.

  • §For Nepal-Makwanpur, the questionnaire included four predefined asset levels; the middle category was therefore excluded.

  • ¶The first and second Bangladesh trial were conducted in the same study areas. The second trial was set up to test the hypothesis that the lack of intervention effect in the first trial was due to the very low coverage of the intervention in the study population.

  • MIRA, Mother and Infant Research Activities; NA, not applicable; PCP, Perinatal Care Project; SNEHA, Society for Nutrition, Education and Health Action.