Table 2

Multivariable analyses of the relations between the presence of a chronic health problem and loss of paid employment using competing risks proportional hazards models (N=8149)

Disability benefit
n=103/8149
Unemployment
n=474/8149
Early retirement
n=570/8149
HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)
Any of the health problems3.48 (2.18 to 5.56)1.32 (1.10 to 1.58)1.11 (0.96 to 1.28)
Specific health problem
 Musculoskeletal2.19 (1.49 to 3.22)1.05 (0.87 to 1.28)1.23 (1.06 to 1.42)
 Severe headache1.78 (1.06 to 2.99)0.95 (0.68 to 1.33)1.18 (0.86 to 1.63)
 Circulatory1.49 (0.88 to 2.54)1.35 (1.03 to 1.77)1.01 (0.81 to 1.26)
 Respiratory2.02 (1.18 to 3.44)0.96 (0.68 to 1.35)0.69 (0.50 to 0.93)
 Digestive1.97 (1.17 to 3.33)0.89 (0.60 to 1.33)0.86 (0.64 to 1.14)
 Diabetes mellitus2.43 (1.44 to 4.09)1.14 (0.82 to 1.60)1.15 (0.92 to 1.44)
 Psychological2.79 (1.45 to 5.39)2.58 (1.83 to 3.62)1.57 (1.05 to 2.34)
Individual factors
 Age (years)1.05 (1.01 to 1.10)1.01 (0.99 to 1.03)1.66 (1.60 to 1.71)
 Gender (male)0.77 (0.51 to 1.15)0.88 (0.74 to 1.06)1.40 (1.19 to 1.64)
Education
 Low1.56 (0.92 to 2.63)1.50 (1.20 to 1.88)0.83 (0.69 to 1.00)
 Medium1.44 (0.87 to 2.36)1.17 (0.94 to 1.45)0.85 (0.72 to 1.02)
 HighReferenceReferenceReference
Work-related factors
 Higher physical load1.08 (0.71 to 1.63)0.82 (0.68 to 0.99)1.16 (1.00 to 1.36)
 Higher psychological job demands0.88 (0.60 to 1.28)0.87 (0.72 to 1.06)0.98 (0.84 to 1.14)
 Lower autonomy1.22 (0.82 to 1.83)1.14 (0.95 to 1.38)1.08 (0.93 to 1.25)
 Lower support1.33 (0.90 to 1.98)1.46 (1.22 to 1.75)1.16 (1.00 to 1.35)
  • HRs for the specific health problems, individual and work-related factors are presented from the same multivariable analyses. HRs presented for the category any of the health problems are from multivariable analyses including individual and work-related factors.