Table 1

Description of study population

Ethiopia (n=1885)India (n=1930)Peru (n=1946)Vietnam (n=1961)
Mean (SD) or %NMean (SD) or %NMean (SD) or %NMean (SD) or %N
Maternal mental health
 Percentage rCMD*32.6188528.3193029.5194619.91961
Child growth and development
Percentage stunted†
 Age 140.6188530.8193028.2194621.11962
 Age 531.1188536.1193032.8194625.61962
 Age 821.5188529.5193020.9194620.11962
Percentage underweight‡
 Age 131.0188532.719307.0194615.01962
 Age 524.0188544.719305.4194617.91962
 Age 834.6188546.219305.8194624.71962
PPVT Mean (SD) (20th centile range) at age 5 years21.3 (12.1) (1,13)183727.4 (21.1) (3,13)183429.1 (17.9) (0,12)185837 (18.2) (4,22)1732
PPVT Mean (SD) (20th centile range) at age 8 years79.2 (44.2) (8,41)185758.5 (30.5) (1035)190158.9 (17.6) (1,45)184594 (28.6) (2074)1848
Child psychosocial
 Pride (sum of 3 item Likert scale, 3–15)10.5 (3)181711.6 (2.3)188711.9 (1.8)192011.9 (1.9)1938
 Life Satisfaction Scale (1–9)5.3 (2)18685.1 (2.3)19017 (2.1)19206 (2.2)1928
Child characteristics
 Per cent Female46.9188546.4193049.6194648.61961
 Age in months (age 1 year)11.7 (3.6)188511.8 (3.5)193011.5 (3.5)194611.8 (3.4)1961
 Age in months (age 5 years)61.9 (3.8)188364.3 (3.8)192963.5 (4.7)191863.1 (3.8)1952
 Age in months (age 8 years)97 (4)188395.5 (3.9)192995 (3.6)194696.6 (3.8)1951
Household characteristics
 Maternal grades completed3 (3.9)18663.719257.719036.91936
 Wealth index§ (age 5 years)0.28 (0.18)18830.4619280.4719180.501950
 Wealth index§ (age 8 years)0.33 (0.18)18850.5119300.5419460.591943
  • Per person, and the materials of the wall, roof and floor, a consumer durables index (reflecting ownership of 10 consumer durables) and a services quality index (reflecting electricity, water source, toilet facility and cooking fuel). N is total number of observations with non-missing values.

  • *SRQ20≥8.

  • †Height-for-age z-scores ≤2.

  • ‡Weight-for-age z-scores ≥2.

  • §The wealth index is a Young Lives measure constructed as the simple average of a housing quality index (reflecting number of rooms).

  • PPVT, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test; SRQ, Self-Reporting Questionnaire; rCMD, risk of maternal common mental disorders.