Table 3

Crude ORs for the association between enrolment in the Disease Management Programme for coronary heart diseases and individual-level, practice-level and area-level variables obtained from cross-classified multilevel logistic regression models

Crude OR95% CIN*Practice N
Individual-level exposure
Education (Ref. I, lowest)
 II0.98(0.65 to 1.48)1241382
 III (highest)1.45(0.97 to 2.15)
Age group (Ref: 55–64)
 65–741.33(0.88 to 1.99)1241382
 75–841.04(0.68 to 1.59)
 Male (Ref: female)1.98(1.50 to 2.62)1241382
Behavioural risk factors
 Hypercholesterolaemia (yes vs no)1.20(0.89 to 1.60)1160368
Body mass index (Ref: normal/underweight)
 Overweight/preobese1.11(0.80 to 1.55)1202378
 Obese class I+II0.91(0.62 to 1.32)
 Obese class III1.10(0.44 to 2.79)
Smoking status (Ref: never smoker)
 Former1.29(0.97 to 1.73)1037358
 Current1.15(0.68 to 1.94)
Alcohol consumption (Ref: abstainers)†
 DI1.58(1.15 to 2.17)920335
 DII1.18(0.53 to 2.66)
 DIII1.88(0.52 to 6.76)
 Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for Geriatrics—severity index‡1.45(1.05 to 2.00)1032334
 Immigration background (yes vs no)1.37(0.86 to 2.18)1234381
Social situation
 Certified and approved need of long-term care (yes vs no)0.49(0.21 to 1.13)964346
 Living in a partnership (yes vs no)1.20(0.86 to 1.68)949347
Social contacts (Ref.: 0–1 contacts)
 2–41.36(0.87 to 2.11)958345
 5–10 and more1.15(0.72 to 1.84)
Practice-level variables
 Male general practitioner (vs female)0.97(0.68 to 1.40)1204365
Area-level variables
Regional deprivation (Ref.: T1, lowest deprivation)§
 T20.62(0.37 to 1.04)1241382
 T3 (highest deprivation)0.74(0.44 to 1.24)
Degree of urbanisation (Ref: rural)
 Urban cluster0.90(0.59 to 1.35)1241382
 High-density cluster0.60(0.28 to 1.30)
  • Municipality N=52. N: sample size/individuals. ORs, obtained from bivariate cross-classified multilevel logistic regression models. CI, calculated using SEs that account for the cross-classified nature of the data. Random part omitted. Ref: Reference category. Bold figures: indicate ORs that are significantly different from 1.

  • *Difference to N=1280 due to missing data in predictors and/or missing data for the cross-classification variable ‘GP-practice by municipality’.

  • †Alcohol consumption in g/day: DI: female: 0–19.99; male: 0–39.99. DII: female: 20–39.99; male: 40–59.99. DIII: female: >40.0; male: >60.0.

  • ‡Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS)—severity index: The OR shows the effect on the propensity of enrolment of a one unit difference in the CIRS-severity index, comparing patients with a higher index with patients with a lower index.

  • §Regional deprivation tertiles (T1-T3) refer to the deprivation of the patient-residential area.