Table 3

Step-wise logistic regression examining the effect of HL and cognition on decline in physical function

HL onlyHL and FAHL and CAHL, FA and CA
Health literacy
 Low2.57 (1.22 to 5.44)*2.01 (0.88 to 4.62)2.32 (1.02 to 5.30)*2.06 (0.87 to 4.88)
 Marginal2.62 (1.38 to 4.95)**2.32 (1.18 to 4.54)*2.45 (1.25 to4.81)**2.30 (1.15 to 4.58)*
 AdequateRefRefRefRef
Fluid cognitive ability0.73 (0.48 to 1.01)0.80 (0.50 to 1.27)
Crystallised cognitive ability0.85 (0.56 to 1.31)0.94 (0.58 to 1.50)
  • These are multivariable analyses controlling for age, gender, race, education, smoking status, exercise frequency, alcohol consumption, BMI, chronic conditions, baseline physical function and time to follow-up.

  • *p<0.05, **p<0.01.

  • BMI, body mass index; CA, crystallised abilities; FA, fluid abilities; HL, health literacy.