Table 4

HRs (95% CI) for deaths from external causes, intentional and unintentional: Scotland relative to England (N=193 873)

External (intentional)*External (unintentional)
ModelDeaths†NHSESHSp ValueDeathsNHSESHSp Value
HRHRHRHR
Age-adjusted and sex-adjusted (basic model)122193 87311.85 (1.18 to 2.89)0.007418193 87310.95 (0.69 to 1.32)0.777
+Occupational social class119183 63411.86 (1.19 to 2.91)0.007398183 04310.93 (0.67 to 1.31)0.693
+Educational attainment122193 73311.85 (1.18 to 2.89)0.007418193 73310.95 (0.68 to 1.31)0.745
+Smoking status122193 06811.65 (1.05 to 2.58)0.030415193 06810.87 (0.62 to 1.22)0.408
+Frequency of alcohol consumption122191 53111.86 (1.19 to 2.91)0.007417191 53110.96 (0.69 to 1.33)0.793
+Self-assessed general health122193 83511.82 (1.16 to 2.84)0.009418193 83510.95 (0.68 to 1.31)0.741
+Long-standing illness122193 82911.85 (1.18 to 2.89)0.007418193 82910.95 (0.69 to 1.32)0.778
Fully-adjusted‡119181 15111.68 (1.07 to 2.64)0.025396181 56010.88 (0.62 to 1.24)0.453
  • *Intentional deaths were identified by any mention of ICD-9 codes E950-E959 (intentional) and E980-E989 (undetermined intent) or ICD-10 codes X60-X84 (intentional) and Y10-Y34 (undetermined intent) associated with an underlying external cause of death (ICD-9 codes 800-999 or ICD-10 codes V00-Y98).

  • †HSE deaths 98; SHS deaths 24.

  • ‡Model adjusted for age, sex, occupational social class, educational attainment, smoking status, frequency of alcohol consumption, self-assessed general health and long-standing illness.

  • HSE, Health Surveys for England; ICD, International Classification of Diseases; SHS, Scottish Health Survey.