Table 1

Details of the five cohorts which have linked antenatal fetal measurements to postnatal outcomes

CohortCountryYears of recruitmentNumber recruitedFetal measurements availableRationale for recruiting cohortInclusion and exclusion criteria
Generation R42The Netherlands2002–20069778 mothers and details from 5125 offspring including more detailed assessment in ≤1232T1: CRL (used for dating)
T2+3: BPD, HC, AC FL, EFW, transverse cerebellar diameter
To identify early environmental and genetic causes of normal and abnormal growth, development and health from fetal life until young adulthoodDelivery date April 2002–January 2006. Recruitment any time during pregnancy (ideally <18 weeks).
Living within Rotterdam area. No exclusion criteria stated
Southampton Women's Survey43UK1998–200212 579 women (75% of all women approached) of whom 2567 became pregnant and delivered live born infant by 2005Weeks 11, 19 and 34: FL, ACTo learn more about the dietary and lifestyle factors that influence the health of women and their childrenWomen aged 20–34 years recruited between 1998 and 2002. Infant born <37 weeks gestation were excluded
Raine Cohort44Australia1989–19912876Weeks 18, 24, 28, 34 and 38 (in 1415*): AC, HC and FLTo determine whether use of multiple ultrasound assessments improved pregnancy outcomesMothers 16–20 weeks pregnant. Fluent in English and expected to deliver in the recruiting hospital
SEATON study45UK1997–19992000 mothers (of 2690 invited to take part) who delivered 1924 live born singleton infantsT1 CRL, T2 BPD and FL no antenatal T3 measurementsTo detect associations between maternal diet during pregnancy and childhood asthma and eczemaMother 10–12 weeks pregnant. Other exclusion and inclusion criteria not described
Project Viva46
USA1999–20022671 mothers (64% of eligible) of whom scan details were used in 772 and of these 438 were followed up at 3 yearsT2 (18 weeks) BPD, FL, AC and EFWTo find ways to improve the health of mothers and their children by looking at the effects of mother’s diet as well as other factors during pregnancy and after birthMothers recruited after initial clinical prenatal visit (≤22 weeks gestation). Exclusion criteria included multiple pregnancy, not fluent in English
  • T1, 2 and 3 are first, second and third trimesters.

  • *The Raine Cohort was designed to determine whether regular antenatal ultrasounds were associated with higher risk of harm to the fetus; mothers were randomised to have either one or five assessments.

  • AC, abdominal circumference; BPD, biparietal diameter; CRL, crown rump length; EFW, estimated fetal weight (derived from HC, FL and AC); FL, femur length; HC, head circumference; SEATON, Study of Eczema and Asthma To Observe the influence of Nutrition.