Table 5

HRs (95% CI) for deaths related to alcohol* or drugs†: Scotland relative to England (N=193 873)

Model‡Alcohol-related deaths*Drug-related poisonings†
DeathsNHSESHSp ValueDeathsNHSESHSp Value
HRHRHRHR
Age-adjusted and sex-adjusted (basic model)252193 83115.43 (4.20 to 7.02)<0.00150193 60613.86 (2.15 to 6.94)<0.001
+Occupational social class246183 00415.26 (4.06 to 6.82)<0.00146182 79313.84 (2.09 to 7.06)<0.001
+Educational attainment251193 69115.34 (4.13 to 6.91)<0.00150193 46613.87 (2.15 to 6.95)<0.001
+Smoking status249193 02614.47 (3.44 to 5.80)<0.00150192 80113.32 (1.84 to 5.98)<0.001
+Frequency of alcohol consumption251191 48915.73 (4.44 to 7.42)<0.00148191 26413.77 (2.06 to 6.87)<0.001
+Self-assessed general health252193 79315.26 (4.07 to 6.80)<0.00150193 56813.65 (2.03 to 6.56)<0.001
+Long-standing illness252193 78715.45 (4.22 to 7.04)<0.00150193 56213.88 (2.16 to 6.98)<0.001
Fully-adjusted§241181 52114.64 (3.55 to 6.05)<0.00145181 31013.43 (1.85 to 6.36)<0.001
  • *Coded according to the General Register Office for Scotland convention using ICD-9 codes 291, 303, 305.0, 425.5, 571.0, 571.1, 571.2, 571.3, 571.4, 571.5, 571.8, 571.9 and E860 and ICD-10 codes F10, G31.2, G62.1, I42.6, K29.2, K70, K73, K74.0, K74.1, K74.2, K74.6, K86.0, X45, X65 and Y15.

  • †ICD-9 codes 304-305 (not 305.1), 965-71, E935–41, E950.0-E950.5, E962 and E980.0-E980.5 and ICD-10 codes F11-F16, F18, F19, X40-X44, X60-X64, X85 and Y10-Y14.

  • ‡Covariates selected from potentially relevant variables because data for these variables were missing in less than 20% of participants.

  • §Model adjusted for age, sex, occupational social class, educational attainment, smoking status, frequency of alcohol consumption, self-assessed general health and long-standing illness.

  • HSE, Health Surveys for England; ICD, International Classification of Diseases; SHS, Scottish Health Survey.