Table 3

Association between infant's ethnicity and known risk factors for obesity (unadjusted)

European
N=493
Māori or Pacific
N=115
Other
N=79
Categorical risk factors; ORs and 95% CIs
 Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, kg/m2
  <251 (ref)1 (ref)1 (ref)
  25 to <301 (ref)1.51 (0.87 to 2.62)
p=0.15
1.04 (0.59 to 1.82)
p=0.90
  ≥301 (ref)2.23 (1.23 to 4.04)
p=0.01
0.43 (0.15 to 1.24)
p=0.12
 Mother did physical activity pre-pregnancy1 (ref)1.14 (0.61 to 2.12)
p=0.68
1.36 (0.64 to 2.90)
p=0.42
 Hypertension in pregnancy1 (ref)1.43 (0.81 to 2.50)
p=0.21
0.93 (0.44 to 1.95)
p=0.84
 Diabetes in pregnancy1 (ref)0.70 (0.20 to 2.43)
p=0.58
1.78 (0.64 to 4.93)
p=0.27
 Exclusive breastfeeding in first 3 days1 (ref)0.84 (0.51 to 1.37)
p=0.47
1.20 (0.70 to 2.06)
p=0.41
 Exclusive breastfeeding at 3 months1 (ref)0.95 (0.63 to 1.42)
p=0.80
1.32 (0.81 to 2.13)
p=0.27
 Solid foods introduced by 3 months1 (ref)1.32 (0.86 to 2.03)
p=0.20
0.76 (0.44 to 1.32)
p=0.34
Continuous risk factors; mean differences and 95% CIs
 Mother's diet in pregnancy*
  Processed foods (SD)0 (ref)0.17 (−0.08 to 0.43)
p=0.19
−0.11 (−0.38 to 0.15)
p=0.39
  Snacks (SD)0 (ref)0.36 (0.13 to 0.59)
p=0.002
−0.25 (−0.52 to 0.01)
p=0.06
  Healthy foods (SD)0 (ref)−0.23 (−0.49 to 0.03)
p=0.09
0.07 (−0.22 to 0.36)
p=0.63
  Sweet foods (SD)0 (ref)−0.25 (−0.51 to 0.01)
p=0.06
−0.07 (−0.33 to 0.20)
p=0.63
  Starchy foods (SD)0 (ref)0.16 (−0.06 to 0.38)
p=0.16
0.33 (0.05 to 0.62)
p=0.02
 Child's weight in first week (kg)0 (ref)0.11 (−0.01 to 0.23)
p=0.07
−0.06 (−0.20 to 0.08)
p=0.42
 Child's weight at 3 months (kg)0 (ref)0.19 (0.01 to 0.38)
p=0.04
0.05 (−0.16 to 0.27)
p=0.62
  • N=687 using multiply imputed data.

  • Values are ORs or mean differences (95% CIs) comparing Māori or Pacific children and other ethnicity children to European children. Multinomial logistic regression was used for maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, with <25 kg/m2 as the reference category. Logistic regression was used for binary risk factors, and linear regression for continuous risk factors. Sociodemographic variables included in the analyses were maternal age, maternal education and NZ deprivation index.

  • *Dietary pattern scores are standardised to have a mean of zero and a variance of one; values in this table can therefore be interpreted as SDs from the overall population mean.

  • BMI, body mass index.