Table 2

Summary of associations between being SGA in the first, second and third trimester and outcomes in postnatal life

Associations with being small for gestational age
OutcomeCohortFirst trimester
(approximately 10 weeks)
Second trimester
(approximately 20 weeks)
Third trimester
(approximately 30 weeks)
RespiratorySEATON15 16Higher risk for asthma at 10 years (CRL)
Lower lung function at 10 years (CRL)
Higher risk for asthma at 10 years (BPD)
Lower lung function at 10 years (BPD)
Scan not done
SWS18Outcomes with SGA not reported
Generation R17No association with symptoms at 4 yearsOutcomes with SGA not reported
AllergySEATON15 16No associations apparent between SGA and eczema, hay fever, skin prick reactivity or exhaled nitric oxide
SWS18Outcomes with SGA not reported
Generation R17Outcomes with SGA not reported
ObesityGeneration R20–22Not associated with PGVNo relationship with EFW and fat mass at 6 months or AFM at 2 years. EFW associated with lower weight PGV and body mass index at adiposity peak. FL inversely associated with height PGVNo relationship with EFW and fat mass at 6 months but borderline association with AFM at 2 years and body mass index at adiposity peak
Project Viva19Scan not doneReduced EFW associated with lower body mass index and obesity at 3 yearsScan not done
Plasma lipidsGeneration R36SGA associated with increased plasma cholesterol at six years of ageOutcomes with SGA not reportedOutcomes with SGA not reported
NeurodevelopmentGeneration R24 25Higher risk for delayed fine motor development at 12 months (HC)SGA AC, EFW and AC:HC (not HC) associated with neuromotor developmental delay at 9–15 weeks. SGA HC associated with delayed fine motor development at 12 monthsSGA AC, EFW and AC:HC (not HC) associated with neuromotor developmental delay at 9–15 weeks. SGA HC associated with global developmental delays at 12 months
Raine23Scan not doneNo association with specific language impairment at 10 yearsAssociation not reported
AutismRaine27Scan not doneNo association with HC and autism at 16 yearsAssociation not reported
Hobbs et al26Scan not doneNo association with BPD, AC or FL and autism (mean age 7 years)Scan not done
Abel et al28Scan not doneGroup with lowest (and also highest) EFW at highest risk for autism by 17 yearsScan not done
Febrile convulsionGeneration R29Association not reportedSGA transverse cerebellar diameter associated with higher riskSGA for transverse cerebellar diameter, EFW, AC and FL (not HC) associated with higher risk
Blood pressureRaine30Scan not doneSGA for FL (not AC or HC) at 24 weeks (not 18) associated with higher SBP at 6 yearsSGA for FL (not AC or HC) throughout associated with higher SBP at 6 years
Generation R31Association not reportedNo association between FL, AC, HC or EFW and SBP at 2 yearsSGA FL associated with higher SBP at 2 years
Project Viva19Scan not doneNo association between EFW and SBP at 3 yearsScan not done
RenalGeneration R32Association not reportedNo association between HC and AC and kidney volume at 2 yearsNo association between HC and AC and kidney volume at 2 years
Bone mineralisationSWS33 34Outcomes with SGA not reported
Generation R35Association not reportedSGA for EFW associated with lower bone mineral density and content at 6 monthsSGA for EFW associated with lower bone mineral density and content at 6 months
  • AC, abdominal circumference; AFM, abdominal fat mass; BPD, biparietal diameter; CRL, crown rump length; EFW, estimated fetal weight; FL, femur length; HC, head circumference; PGV, peak growth velocities; SBP, systolic blood pressure; SEATON, Study of Eczema and Asthma To Observe the influence of Nutrition; SGA, small for gestational age; SWS, Southampton Women's Study.