Table 4

The additive effects of internet use and social engagement on health literacy decline, the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, 2004–2011 (n=4368)

OR*95% CI
Per additional activity0.87(0.81 to 0.94)
Number of activities engaged in†
 One0.93(0.76 to 1.14)
 Two0.81(0.63 to 1.02)
 Three0.70(0.53 to 0.94)
 Four0.51(0.33 to 0.79)
  • *Adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, educational attainment, net non-pension wealth, having a limiting long-standing illness, experiencing an IADL limitation, baseline executive function, baseline memory, executive function decline and memory decline.

  • †The four activities referred to are internet use and each of civic, leisure, and cultural activities.

  • IADL, instrumental activity of daily living.