Table 1

Characteristics of non-Hispanic white MS case–control study participants*

CharacteristicAll controlsCases with onset ≥18 yearspCases with onset ≥28 yearsp
N6201023699
Year of birth (SD)1957 (8.2)1958 (8.6)0.361956 (7.2)0.0011
Gender (female:male)5.5:14.0:10.0213.7:10.0054
Infectious mononucleosis (ever)13.4%25.1%4.6×10−824.6%1.6×10−6
Tobacco smoke (ever)40.0%50.2%1.6×10−449.5%0.0019
Family history (any)2.1%8.2%3.5×10−78.3%6.3×10−7
Latitude at birth (degrees; mean)†39.0138.690.2838.610.20
Latitude at age 10 (degrees; mean)‡38.6738.190.1938.270.24
Vitamin D use at age 18 (ever)1.1%0.7%0.14
Vitamin D use at age 28 (ever)3.4%2.2%0.17
Body size at age 10
 Underweight20.0%17.0%0.0010
 About normal62.1%57.4%
 A little overweight14.7%22.4%
 Very overweight2.6%2.8%
Body size at age 20
 Underweight12.6%12.2%0.0036
 About normal71.6%65.0%
 A little overweight11.8%18.1%
 Very overweight3.6%4.7%
HLA-DRB1*15:01 alleles
 071.6%46.8%3.1×10−2247.5%2.4×10−18
 125.8%45.5%45.2%
 22.6%7.7%7.3%
Weighted genetic risk score (wGRS; mean)§6.51 (0.56)6.74 (0.50)5.7×10−186.73 (0.49)2.6×10−14
Median household income of census block$67 799$63 8960.0011$64 7300.020
  • 2 statistics and t tests were used to compare categorical and continuous characteristics, respectively.

  • †N=599 controls; 948 cases with onset ≥18 years; 643 cases with onset ≥28 years.

  • ‡N=412 controls; 800 cases with onset ≥18 years; 542 cases with onset ≥28 years.

  • §N=620 controls; 1005 cases with onset ≥18 years; 686 cases with onset ≥28 years.

  • MS, multiple sclerosis; wGRS, weighted genetic risk score.