Table 1

Inequality in coverage of breast cancer screening (Adjusted OR)

ChinaMexicoRussiaSouth Africa
Wealth quintile
 Q1 (the poorest)1 (ref)1 (ref)1 (ref)1 (ref)
 Q21.70 (1.22 to 2.38)1.67 (0.57 to 4.94)1.38 (0.83 to 2.30)1.11 (0.22 to 5.46)
 Q31.85 (1.21 to 2.82)0.64 (0.17 to 2.43)1.20 (0.56 to 2.56)1.09 (0.33 to 3.64)
 Q41.99 (1.28 to 3.08)2.22 (1.08 to 4.57)1.18 (0.46 to 3.03)1.27 (0.44 to 3.67)
 Q5 (the most affluent)2.37 (1.42 to 3.95)2.02 (0.83 to 4.93)1.01 (0.47 to 2.16)1.92 (0.65 to 5.72)
Age
 50–591 (ref)1 (ref)1 (ref)1 (ref)
 60–690.58 (0.46 to 0.72)0.96 (0.46 to 1.99)0.59 (0.38 to 0.91)0.85 (0.44 to 1.65)
 70–740.48 (0.34 to 0.69)0.75 (0.32 to 1.74)0.34 (0.19 to 0.63)0.42 (0.14 to 1.27)
Marital status
 Married/cohabiting1 (ref)1 (ref)1 (ref)1 (ref)
 Single/widowed/separated0.88 (0.72 to 1.07)0.38 (0.17 to 0.81)0.63 (0.44 to 0.91)1.08 (0.61 to 1.94)
Residence
 Rural1 (ref)1 (ref)1 (ref)1 (ref)
 Urban2.31 (1.61 to 3.31)1.47 (0.67 to 3.25)1.27 (0.55 to 2.92)2.63 (1.12 to 6.21)
Education attainment
 Primary or less1 (ref)1 (ref)1 (ref)1 (ref)
 Secondary1.31 (1.07 to 1.62)1.08 (0.31 to 3.75)1.84 (0.68 to 4.97)1.02 (0.46 to 2.25)
 Tertiary or more2.54 (1.13 to 5.70)1.24 (0.38 to 4.09)1.73 (0.56 to 5.33)1.72 (0.58 to 5.15)
Insurance status
 No insurance1 (ref)1 (ref)1 (ref)
 Mandatory insurance1.21 (0.91 to 1.61)45.08 (3.73 to 544.33)1.44 (0.57 to 3.64)
 Voluntary insurance0.93 (0.61 to 1.41)310.62 (12.62 to 7643.87)3.08 (1.08 to 8.82)
 Both1.18 (0.81 to 1.71)271.57 (21.99 to 3353.63)0.96 (0.24 to 3.86)
  • The regression model was also adjusted for some country-specific variables, which include respondents’ ethnicity (Black African/Caucasian/coloured, mixed ancestry/others) in South Africa and geographic location (eight provinces) in China and South Africa.

  • The Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) data do not contain information on health insurance status in Mexico.