Table 2

Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard survival analyses of factors associated with time to all-cause mortality among 666 people who use illicit drugs, Vancouver, Canada, 1996–2010

CharacteristicUnadjusted HR (95% CI)1p ValueAdjusted HR (95% CI)p Value
Employment* (yes vs no)0.42 (0.21 to 0.86)0.0170.44 (0.22 to 0.91)0.026
Age (per additional 10 years)1.58 (1.33 to 1.89)<0.0011.79 (1.48 to 2.18)<0.001
Gender (female vs male)0.97 (0.73 to 1.30)0.850
Aboriginal ancestry (yes vs no)0.67 (0.49 to 0.91)0.0090.75 (0.54 to 1.03)0.076
Unstable housing* (yes vs no)1.08 (0.81 to 1.45)0.599
Non-injection drug use* (abstinent vs any)0.85 (0.52 to 1.42)0.5550.85 (0.51 to 1.42)0.541
Injection drug use* (abstinent vs any)0.76 (0.50 to 1.14)0.1830.71 (0.47 to 1.07)0.099
Non-fatal overdose* (yes vs no)0.74 (0.38 to 1.45)0.380
MMT enrolment* (yes vs no)0.87 (0.64 to 1.16)0.338
Sex work participation* (yes vs no)0.67 (0.42 to 1.08)0.099
Incarceration* (yes vs no)0.86 (0.58 to 1.30)0.479
Baseline CD4 T cell count (per 100 cells)0.93 (0.87 to 0.99)0.0320.93 (0.87 to 0.99)0.036
ART adherence* (≥95% vs <95%)0.78 (0.56 to 1.07)0.127
PVL* (per log10 increase)1.21 (1.08 to 1.35)0.0011.31 (1.17 to 1.46)<0.001
Year of enrolment (per year)0.99 (0.94 to 1.03)0.501
  • *Refers to the 6-month period preceding the follow-up interview.

  • ART, antiretroviral therapy; MMT, methadone maintenance therapy; PVL, plasma viral load copies per millilitre.