Table 1

Logistic regression of transitions into self-rated ill-health among respondents 18–64 years in 23 European countries (z values within parenthesis)

Model IModel IIModel IIIModel IV
Individual-level effects
 Primary education†0.801** (0.066)0.805** (0.062)0.940** (0.197)0.798** (0.069)
 Secondary education†0.558** (0.053)0.558** (0.053)0.558** (0.053)0.344 (0.223)
Country-level effects
 Ui coverage rate−1.296* (0.654)0.042 (0.935)−1.262 (0.667)−1.519* (0.659)
 Ui replacement rate0.523** (0.168)2.414** (0.932)0.530** (0.159)0.529** (0.165)
 Ui coverage rate*Ui replacement rate−2.471 (1.348)
Cross-level effects
 Ui coverage rate*Primary education−0.221 (0.274)
 Ui coverage rate*Secondary education0.333 (0.301)
 Diff. BIC−56.619−9.481−2.313
  • *p<0.05; **p<0.01 using cluster robust SEs. All regression models include a constant and the full set of control variables, including GDP per capita in purchasing power adjusted amounts, social spending as percentage of GDP, self-rated health in 2006, age, sex, employment status (employed, unemployed, inactive, student) and family type (single person, lone parent, couple without children and two-parent family with children).

  • †Reference category is tertiary education.

  • Diff. BIC, difference in the Bayesian Information Criterion from the baseline model excluding the interaction term; GDP, gross domestic product; Ui, unemployment insurance.