Table 1

Public health problems and their respective technological, behavioural or structural solutions

Preventive measurePublic health issue
All cancersLung cancerCervical cancerCardiovascular diseaseType 2 diabetesObesity
Not sufficiently prioritised lifestyle interventions
 Smoking avoidance
 Alcohol avoidance
 Eat less
 Weight control
 Low energy density diets
 Mediterranean-type diet
 ↑Fruits and vegetables
 ↑Cis-unsaturated fats
 ↑Cis-unsaturated fish
 ↓Added sugars
 ↓Trans fats
 ↓Red meats
 ↓Refined cereals
 Physically active lifestyle
 Reduction of sexual partners
 Delayed sexual debut
 Character education*
Not sufficiently prioritised structural approaches
 Smoke-free spaces
 Raise tobacco prices
 Air pollution control
 Healthy food affordability
Trans-fats banning
 Walking and cycle ways
 Healthy school meals
 ↓Serving size in restaurants
 ↓Added sugars
 Sexual attitudes and beliefs
 Cultural change (social norms)
Expensive and dubious technological ‘solutions’Genetic testingScreening (low-dose CT)HPV vaccineStatinsMetformin, thiazolidindionesAntiobesity drugs
  • A mark (✓) indicates an appropriate evidence-based preventive intervention.

  • *Learning process that enables to understand, care about and act, on core values such as respect, justice, civic virtue and citizenship, and responsibility for self and others, which are the hallmark of safe, healthy and informed communities that serve as the foundation of our society.

  • CT, computed tomography; HPV, human papillomavirus.