Table 1

Baseline characteristics of study participants by baseline report of cholelithiasis and/or cholecystectomy in the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS) (1996–2010) and Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS) (2002–2010)

Baseline-reported cholelithiasis and/or cholecystectomyNo baseline report of cholelithiasis or cholecystectomyp Value
Women (SWHS)
 Number of subjects833064 879
 Cholelithiasis97.97%0.00%
 Cholecystectomy37.83%0.00%
 Age (years)56.46 (0.10)52.00 (0.04)<0.01
 Educational level
  ≤Elementary school19.74%21.66%<0.01
  Middle school36.20%37.29%
  High school28.31%27.84%
  ≥College15.75%13.21%
 Annual family income
  <10 000 yuan15.51%16.18%<0.01
  10 000–19 999 yuan37.05%38.39%
  20 000–29 999 yuan28.78%28.00%
  ≥30 000 yuan18.66%17.43%
 Cigarette smoking3.46%2.69%<0.01
 Alcohol consumption2.25%2.27%0.51
 Post-menopausal49.81%48.76%<0.01
 BMI (kg/m2)24.71 (0.04)23.92 (0.01)<0.01
 Leisure time physical activity (MET hours/day) median (Q1, Q3)0.00 (0.00, 1.37)0.00 (0.00, 0.64)<0.01
 Total energy intake (kcal/day)1646.36 (4.48)1680.69 (1.59)<0.01
 History of diabetes7.41%3.83%<0.01
 History of hepatitis/chronic liver disease5.65%3.03%<0.01
 Family history of liver cancer3.84%3.22%0.01
Men (SMHS)
 Number of subjects478556 552
 Cholelithiasis96.43%0.00%
 Cholecystectomy35.19%0.00%
 Age (years)59.91 (0.14)54.97 (0.04)<0.01
 Educational level
  ≤Elementary school5.43%6.77%<0.01
  Middle school28.25%33.45%
  High school35.97%37.00%
  ≥College30.35%22.78%
 Annual per capita family income
  <6000 yuan10.17%12.72%<0.01
  6000–11 999 yuan38.73%43.06%
  12 000–23 999 yuan38.95%34.70%
  ≥24 000 yuan12.14%9.52%
 Cigarette smoking66.08%69.94%<0.01
 Alcohol consumption27.31%34.21%<0.01
 BMI (kg/m2)24.34 (0.04)23.67 (0.01)<0.01
 Leisure time physical activity (MET hours/day) median (Q1, Q3)0.00 (0.00, 1.99)0.00 (0.00, 1.05)0.55
 Total energy intake (kcal/day)1890.81 (7.02)1910.67 (2.03)0.01
 History of diabetes10.05%5.90%<0.01
 History of hepatitis/chronic liver disease9.99%5.13%<0.01
 Family history of liver cancer3.89%3.57%0.30
  • For all characteristics except age, means (SE) and percentages were adjusted for age at baseline. All p values, other than age, were adjusted for age. The p values were calculated using the Cochran–Mantel–Haenszel test for a general association for categorical variables and the test of difference in least-squared means for continuous variables except for physical activity, which was tested using ranks in a general linear model due to non-normality.

  • BMI, body mass index; MET, metabolic equivalents.