Table 2

Adjusted mean z-score differences in Pakistani relative to White British infants with adjustment for birth weight

Adjusted* mean difference (95% CI) in z-scores for Pakistani infants relative to White British infants including adjustment for birth weight
Pakistani subgroups defined by place of birth of parents†
All Pakistani births, N=4649Pakistani: both parents UK born, N=492Pakistani: mum only UK born, N=1192Pakistani: dad only UK born, N=1104Pakistani: both parents South Asian born, N=1411Pakistani: other, N=450
Subscapular skinfold thickness, N=5228–0.01 (−0.08 to 0.05)0.04 (−0.07 to 0.15)0.00 (−0.09 to 0.08)−0.08 (−0.17 to 0.01)−0.01 (−0.09 to 0.07)0.00 (−0.11 to 0.11)
Triceps skinfold thickness, N=52430.03 (−0.03 to 0.09)0.02 (−0.09 to 0.13)0.06 (−0.02 to 0.14)−0.04 (−0.13 to 0.05)0.03 (−0.05 to 0.11)0.05 (−0.06 to 0.16)
  • *Adjusted for smoking; alcohol; maternal age; maternal hypertension; maternal fasting glucose; maternal height; maternal BMI; parity; gestation; sex; socioeconomic position (maternal education, housing tenure, receipt of means tested benefits); living with partner; and birth weight. Fasting glucose, postload glucose and fasting insulin were highly correlated thus postload glucose and fasting insulin were excluded from the fully adjusted model as they had the least effect and no impact on associations over that seen for fasting glucose.

  • †Each of these generational subgroups is compared with the White British reference group.

  • BMI, body mass index.