Table 1

Characteristics of included studies

Stated study objectiveStudy designYearSettingStudy population (n)Description of exposureOutcome(s) measuredAuthorSource
To fill gap in longitudinal evidence on food habits before and after old age retirementPre-post, with control (survey, mean 3 years; adjusted for 7 covariates)2000–2002 and 2007Helsinki, FinlandMunicipal employees, males (n=527); females (n=1824)Old age retirement (63–68 years in Finland)Healthy food habits (FFQ, 8-item index) (6/8=healthy)Helldán et al46PubMed/Medline
(1) To understand how retirement decisions of older Americans influence household food consumption patterns by gender; (2) to examine impact of the change in food consumption on weightPanel survey (Health and Retirement Study)1992–2002USAPopulation aged 50+ (n=6012)Retirement of self and spouse (ie, not working for pay currently and for past 3 months, and self-reported retired)Household spending on food at home; individual spending on eating out; BMIChung et al44Hand-searched
To study the impact of retirement on diet, physical activity, BMI and waist circumference, over a 5-year follow-upProspective cohort, with control (retired vs. employed, by job activity)1997–2002Rural town, NetherlandsMen aged 50–65 (n=288)Not specifically defined (retirement)Food intake (FFQ); physical activity; anthropometric measuresNooyens et al42Web of Science
To preliminarily evaluate the impact of the Veggie Mobile [intervention] on the shopping and eating habits of a group of community-dwelling seniorsPre-post, no control (postal survey)2008New York, USAResidents aged 55+ (n=43)Reduced cost of fruit and vegetable provided weekly through a mobile vanF&V intake (6-item questionnaire, 24 h); frequency of supermarket visits and amount spentAbusabha et al45Web of Science
To revisit spending on food at retirement and explore the hypothesis that retirement is accompanied by a negative wealth shock that causes people to reduce spendingPanel survey (British Household Panel Survey) (involuntary/early vs voluntary retired)1991–2002UKMen aged 45–64 (n=2000)Retirement (ie, first year man is both not working and self-reports retired)Weekly food spendingSmith43Hand-searched
(1) To examine the relationship between consumption behaviour and retirement; (2) to test the bargaining model by comparing married couples behaviour at retirement to that of singlesPanel survey (Panel Study of Income Dynamics) (unmarried vs matched co-habiting pairs)1979–1986 and 1989–2002USAPopulation aged 45–74 (n=553)Retirement of husband (ie, latest reported year retired)Annual household food spending (1985 US$)Lundberg et al41Hand-searched
To evaluate dietary habits and body composition in a longitudinal study of municipally employed women before and after retirementPre-post, no control (median 5-month interval)Not reportedMalmo, SwedenFemale municipal employees (n=116)Not specifically defined (legal old age retirement)Food intake (diet interview); height; weight; skinfolds; and waistSteen et al39PubMed/Medline
To examine shifts in fibre intakes between pre- and post-retirement periodsPre-post, no control (survey)Not reportedLondon, UKNear-retired employees of 2 firms (n=183)Retirement from work (ie, minimum 6 months not in work)Fibre intake (7-day weighed diary)Davies et al38PubMed/Medline
To investigate the impact of retirement on one's eating habits and food intakePre-post, no control (comparison 6 months pre with 19 months post)Not reportedToulouse, FrancePersons near retirement (n=52), majority teachersNot specifically defined (retirement)Food intake (3-day diary); physical activity, perceived wellbeingLauque et al40PubMed/Medline
  • FFQ, food frequency questionnaire.