Table 5

Estimated effect of free school breakfast programme on children's educational and other outcomes

Outcome (measurement range)Effect* (intervention vs control phase)Lower 95% CIUpper 95% CIp Value
School attendance rate (0%–100%)0.25−0.821.320.65
Self-reported reading grades (1–5)0.06−
Sense of belonging (1–4)−0.02−
Total SDQ score (0–40)−0.10−0.690.480.73
Short-term satiety (0–150)8.563.4213.690.001
Food security (study child)0.920.701.220.55
Food security (all children in household)0.890.671.180.43
  • * A linear mixed model was used on continuous outcomes to estimate the treatment difference in means, adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity and school terms (ie, secular trend). School was fitted as a random effect to adjust for the cluster effect and the variability across schools. A generalised linear mixed model was used on binary outcomes to estimate the OR and its 95% CI.

  • SDQ, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire.