Table 2

Associations of number of fast-food restaurants at time t with weight changes from t to t +1

Body mass indexWaist-to-height ratioWaist-to-hip ratio
WomenMenWomenMenWomenMen
Rural sample
 Individual level
  Intercept2.86 (0.17)***20.92 (25.56)***17.39 (0.51)***17.04 (0.51)***51.45 (0.93)***48.87 (1.04)***
  Baseline anthropometric−0.12 (0.01) ***−0.13 (0.01)***−0.34 (0.01)***−0.35 (0.01)***−0.62 (0.01)***−0.57 (0.01)***
  Year (ref =2000)
   2004−0.12 (0.05)*−0.08 (0.05)−0.57 (0.13)***−0.55 (0.13)***−0.48 (0.16)**−0.33 (0.16)*
   20060.04 (0.05)0.14 (0.06)*0.37 (0.14)**0.27 (0.13)*0.09 (0.17)0.20 (0.17)
  Age−0.14 (0.04) ***−0.29 (0.04)***0.91 (0.11)***0.17 (0.09)1.44 (0.12)***0.37 (0.11)**
  Education (ref = no/primary)
   Junior high−0.08 (0.05)0.05 (0.05)−0.27 (0.14)0.22 (0.13)−0.50 (0.17)**0.12 (0.16)
   Senior high−0.15 (0.08)0.01 (0.07)−0.67 (0.21)**0.08 (0.16)−1.14 (0.25)***−0.04 (0.20)
  Household income0.03 (0.02)0.00 (0.02)0.09 (0.06)0.07 (0.06)0.06 (0.07)0.13 (0.07)
  Married (ref = no)0.14 (0.07)*−0.01 (0.07)0.17 (0.17)0.19 (0.16)0.63 (0.20)**0.47 (0.20)*
  Drinking (ref = no)0.09 (0.07)0.08 (0.05)−0.17 (0.20)0.31 (0.11)**−0.02 (0.23)0.76 (0.14)***
  Smoking (ref = no)−0.12 (0.10)−0.11 (0.04)**−0.48 (0.26)−0.28 (0.11)*0.00 (0.31)−0.19 (0.13)
  Heavy PA (ref = no)0.11 (0.05)*−0.01 (0.05)−0.02 (0.13)−0.12 (0.13)−0.06 (0.15)−0.17 (0.16)
 Neighbourhood level
  Number of fast-food restaurants at t 0.02 (0.04)0.05 (0.05)0.34 (0.11)**0.18 (0.10)0.29 (0.14)*0.06 (0.14)
  Number of population at t 0.06 (0.02)**0.03 (0.03)0.02 (0.06)0.09 (0.05)0.04 (0.07)0.02 (0.07)
  Urbanicity index−0.01 (0.03)0.02 (0.07)−0.36 (0.11)**−0.07 (0.09)−0.29 (0.13)*0.08 (0.12)
  Region (ref = south)
   Northeast0.20 (0.08)*11.55 (16.17)**0.43 (0.27)0.79 (0.21)***0.42 (0.32)0.93 (0.27)**
   Coastal0.24 (0.08)**11.54 (16.15)*0.81 (0.27)**0.92 (0.22)***0.46 (0.32)0.91 (0.28)**
   Inland0.20 (0.07)**6.30 (9.56)0.61 (0.24)*0.83 (0.20)***0.64 (0.29)*1.22 (0.25)***
 N946687299521879995788903
Urban sample
 Individual level
  Intercept3.42 (0.96)*3.62 (0.31)***18.19 (0.93)***17.46 (0.88)***50.77 (1.56)***53.74 (1.66)***
  Baseline anthropometric−0.14 (0.01)***−0.15 (0.01)***−0.36 (0.02)***−0.35 (0.02)***−0.62 (0.02)***−0.63 (0.02)***
  Year (ref =2000)
   2004−0.21 (0.09)*−0.44 (0.09)***0.30 (0.22)−0.34 (0.22)0.20 (0.27)−0.06 (0.26)
   2006−0.14 (0.09)−0.21 (0.09)*0.58 (0.24)*0.05 (0.23)−0.01 (0.29)−0.12 (0.28)
  Age−0.05 (0.06)−0.32 (0.06)***1.25 (0.17)***0.24 (0.14)1.78 (0.20)***0.53 (0.17)**
  Education (ref = no/primary)
   Junior high0.16 (0.10)−0.01 (0.11)0.06 (0.26)−0.33 (0.26)−0.15 (0.32)−0.15 (0.32)
   Senior high−0.18 (0.11)−0.09 (0.11)−0.66 (0.27)*−0.43 (0.26)−0.73 (0.32)*0.08 (0.32)
  Household income0.00 (0.03)−0.02 (0.04)−0.07 (0.08)−0.03 (0.08)−0.06 (0.09)0.04 (0.08)
  Married (ref = no)−0.04 (0.09)0.11 (0.11)0.20 (0.23)0.22 (0.26)0.35 (0.28)0.66 (0.31)*
  Drinking (ref = no)0.06 (0.11)0.01 (0.07)0.35 (0.28)0.27 (0.17)0.81 (0.34)*0.64 (0.21)**
  Smoking (ref = no)−0.41 (0.20)*−0.10 (0.07)0.27 (0.51)−0.15 (0.17)0.04 (0.63)−0.31 (0.21)
  Heavy PA (ref = no)−0.03 (0.19)0.03 (0.16)−0.12 (0.48)0.22 (0.38)0.48 (0.57)0.68 (0.45)
 Neighbourhood level
  Number of fast-food restaurants at t −0.11 (0.04)**−0.01 (0.04)0.07 (0.11)0.03 (0.10)−0.10 (0.13)0.10 (0.12)
  Population at t −0.03 (0.02)−0.03 (0.03)−0.11 (0.07)−0.03 (0.07)−0.08 (0.09)0.01 (0.08)
  Urbanicity index0.01 (0.09)0.18 (0.10)−0.24 (0.28)0.15 (0.26)0.24 (0.34)0.00 (0.32)
  Region (ref = south)
   Northeast0.63 (2.41)0.22 (0.15)−0.09 (0.51)0.55 (0.42)0.19 (0.64)0.95 (0.57)
   Coastal0.68 (2.59)*0.21 (0.15)0.23 (0.50)0.78 (0.42)−0.81 (0.63)0.03 (0.57)
   Inland0.59 (2.86)0.26 (0.14)0.42 (0.46)0.88 (0.38)*1.07 (0.57)1.16 (0.52)*
 N442738794452390844133853
  • *p<0.05, **p<0.001, ***p<0.001 (Bayesian p values, truncated to these standard classical cutpoints for significance).

  • Numbers in parentheses are SEs.

  • PA, physical activity.