Table 1

Changes in HIV prevalence by educational attainment and gender between two national surveys in eight countries in sub-Saharan Africa, 2003–2011

No EducationPrimary EducationSecondary education or higher
MalesFemalesMalesFemalesMalesFemales
CountryYear of completed national surveysPopulation share (%)HIV prevalence (%)Population share (%)HIV prevalence (%)Population share (%)HIV prevalence (%)Population share (%)HIV prevalence (%)Population share (%)HIV prevalence (%)Population share (%)HIV prevalence (%)
Tanzania200311.24.222.25.877.86.569.48.1117.38.49.3
200711.95.521.2673.64.769.1714.63.49.64.9
RD%*6.3%31.0%−4.5%3.4%−5.4%−27.9%−0.4%−13.8%32.7%−53.4%14.3%−47.3%
Kenya20036.42.712.74.456.74.4589.936.95.229.48.2
20083.45.48.95.851.84.956.8944.83.434.26.9
RD%*−46.9%100.0%−29.9%31.8%−8.6%10.1%−2.1%−9.2%21.4%−34.6%16.3%−15.9%
Lesotho200417.126.8230.454.917.157.426.52819.540.626
200911.227.51.220.548.817.446.530.140.116.152.223.8
RD%*−34.5%2.6%−40.0%−32.6%−11.1%1.6%−19.0%13.6%43.2%−17.4%28.6%−8.5%
Malawi200411.79.223.413.661.99.261.112.826.312.915.515.1
20106.210.915.214.162.67.764.811.631.28.519.916.1
RD%*−47.0%18.5%−35.0%3.7%1.1%−16.6%6.1%−9.5%18.6%−34.3%28.4%6.7%
Burkina Faso200351.21.771.71.5321.419.63.116.92.98.72.8
201059.30.673.9120.41.113.61.520.31.112.42
RD%*15.8%−64.7%3.1%−33.3%−36.3%−21.4%−29.9%−51.6%20.1%−62.1%42.5%−28.6%
Rwanda200517.4323.43.370.31.867.12.812.33.29.66.4
201010.32.915.54.268.82.168.33.420.92.316.24.5
RD%*−40.8%−3.3%−33.8%27.3%−2.1%16.7%1.8%21.4%69.9%−28.1%68.8%−29.7%
Ethiopia200542.90.865.9137.30.522.22.519.7211.95.5
201129.50.850.81.353.10.9382.217.42.411.23.3
RD%*−31.2%0.0%−22.9%30.0%42.4%80.0%71.2%−12.0%−11.7%20.0%−5.9%−40.0%
Zimbabwe20051.523.44.32027.31532.622.471.214.263.120.5
20110.815.82.315.221.213.62820.17811.969.716.7
RD%*−46.7%−34.2%−46.5%−24.0%−22.3%−9.3%−14.1%−10.3%9.6%−16.2%10.5%−18.5%
  • Prevalence of HIV infection, and changes over time, among groups with different educational attainment in countries with data from two nationally representative DHS-style surveys available before end of 2012. Data were extracted from tables in DHS reports available from (http://www.measuredhs.com). Reports from Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Tanzania, Benin and Zimbabwe stratified HIV prevalence by more than the three education strata used here. These were disaggregates of ‘none’, ‘primary’ and ‘secondary’. For instance, ‘started primary’ and ‘completed primary’ were disaggregated substrata of the overall stratum ‘primary’. Substrata-specific HIV prevalences were combined by multiplying the substrata-specific HIV prevalence by the weighted number of participants in the substrata to give the weighted number of cases; summing across substrata gave the total number of cases, and dividing by the total weighted number of strata participants gave the combined strata-specific prevalence.

  • *The RD% (risk difference %) expresses the difference between the first and second time-point prevalence as a proportion of the prevalence at the first time point.