Table 1

Diagnostic models

Model numbersCodesAUC (95% CI)TP*FN*TN*FP*SE% (95% CI)SP% (95% CI)PPV% (95% CI)NPV% (95% CI)
1Y=ICD0.6815 (0.6251 to 0.7380)264515 6084936.6 (25.7 to 49.0)99.7 (99.6 to 99.8)34.7 (24.3 to 46.6)99.7 (99.6 to 99.8)
2Y=EXE0.7111 (0.6536 to 0.7685)304115 650742.3 (30.8 to 54.5)99.9 (99.9 to 100)81.1 (64.3 to 91.4)99.7 (99.6 to 99.8)
3Y=EEG0.9280 (0.8873 to 0.9688)611015 6094885.9 (76.0 to 92.2)99.7 (99.6 to 99.8)56.0 (46.1 to 65.4)99.9 (99.9 to 100)
4Y=AED0.9378 (0.9028 to 0.9727)64715 25240590.1 (81.0 to 95.1)97.4 (97.2 to 97.7)13.6 (10.7 to 17.2)99.9 (99.9 to 100)
5Y=ICD+EXE0.8158 (0.7593 to 0.8723)452615 6055263.4 (51.8 to 73.6)99.7 (99.6 to 99.8)46.4 (36.3 to 56.8)99.8 (99.8 to 99.9)
6Y=ICD+EEG0.9423 (0.9052 to 0.9795)611015 6094885.9 (76.0 to 92.2)99.7 (99.6 to 99.9)56.0 (46.1 to 65.4)99.9 (99.9 to 100)
7Y=ICD+AED0.9411 (0.9059 to 0.9763)64715 25240590.1 (81.0 to 95.1)97.4 (97.2 to 97.7)13.6 (10.7 to 17.2)99.9 (99.9 to 100)
8Y=EXE+EEG0.9426 (0.9055 to 0.9797)611015 6094885.9 (76.0 to 92.2)99.7 (99.6 to 99.9)56.0 (46.1 to 65.4)99.9 (99.9 to 100)
9Y=EXE+AED0.9430 (0.9077 to 0.9784)64715 25240590.1 (81.0 to 95.1)97.4 (97.2 to 97.7)13.6 (10.7 to 17.2)99.9 (99.9 to 100)
10Y=EEG+AED0.9478 (0.9121 to 0.9836)611015 6233485.9 (76.0 to 92.2)99.8 (99.7 to 99.8)64.2 (53.7 to 73.6)99.9 (99.9 to 100)
11Y=ICD+EXE+EEG0.9498 (0.9147 to 0.9848)63815 6035488.7 (79.3 to 94.2)99.6 (99.6 to 99.8)53.8 (44.4 to 63.0)99.9 (99.9 to 100)
12Y=ICD+EXE+AED0.9450 (0.9095 to 0.9805)452615 6055263.4 (51.8 to 73.6)99.7 (99.6 to 99.8)46.4 (36.3 to 56.8)99.8 (99.8 to 99.9)
13Y=ICD+EEG+AED0.9484 (0.9126 to 0.9842)611015 6233485.9 (76.0 to 92.2)99.8 (99.7 to 99.8)64.2 (53.7 to 73.6)99.9 (99.9 to 100)
14Y=EXE+EEG+AED0.9486 (0.9128 to 0.9844)611015 6233485.9 (76.0 to 92.2)99.8 (99.7 to 99.8)64.2 (53.7 to 73.6)99.9 (99.9 to 100)
15Y=ICD+EXE+EEG+AED0.9489 (0.9131 to 0.9847)63815 6174088.7 (79.3 to 96.2)99.7 (99.7 to 99.8)61.2 (51.0 to 70.5)99.9 (99.9 to 100)
  • *Chosen to maximise AUC value; in bold the ‘Best model’

  • AED, antiepileptic drug; AUC, area under the curve; EXE, exemption; FN, false negative; FP, false positive; ICD, International Classification of Diseases; NPV, negative predictive value; PPV, positive predictive value; SE, sensitivity; SP, specificity; TN, true negative; TP, true positive.