Table 4

Associations of changes in number of fast-food restaurants from t −1 to t with future weight changes from t to t +1

Body mass indexWaist-to-height ratioWaist-to-hip ratio
WomenMenWomenMenWomenMen
Rural sample
 Individual level
  Intercept2.76 (0.19)***2.92 (0.20)***16.27 (0.62)***16.06 (0.61)***48.20 (1.12)***47.36 (1.27)***
  Baseline anthropometric−0.12 (0.01)***−0.11 (0.01)***−0.33 (0.01)***−0.34 (0.01)***−0.58 (0.01)***−0.56 (0.01)***
  Year 2006 (ref =2004)0.18 (0.05)***0.21 (0.05)***0.89 (0.13)***0.76 (0.13)***0.48 (0.16)**0.44 (0.16)**
  Age−0.13 (0.05)**−0.29 (0.04)***1.06 (0.13)***0.15 (0.11)1.58 (0.15)***0.36 (0.14)**
  Education (ref = no/primary)
   Junior high−0.11 (0.06)0.02 (0.06)−0.16 (0.17)0.27 (0.15)−0.34 (0.20)0.01 (0.19)
   Senior high−0.17 (0.09)−0.03 (0.07)−0.46 (0.24)0.03 (0.19)−0.85 (0.29)**−0.24 (0.24)
  Household income0.04 (0.02)0.01 (0.02)0.11 (0.07)0.07 (0.06)0.05 (0.08)0.13 (0.08)
  Currently married (ref = no)0.13 (0.08)0.00 (0.08)0.04 (0.20)0.19 (0.21)0.54 (0.25)*0.51 (0.24)*
  Drinking (ref = no)−0.01 (0.09)−0.01 (0.05)−0.29 (0.24)0.20 (0.13)−0.14 (0.29)0.67 (0.17)***
  Smoking (ref = no)−0.14 (0.12)−0.16 (0.05)**−0.58 (0.32)−0.34 (0.13)*−0.46 (0.39)−0.25 (0.16)
  Heavy PA (ref = no)0.05 (0.06)0.04 (0.06)−0.03 (0.15)−0.05 (0.15)−0.01 (0.18)−0.07 (0.19)
 Neighbourhood level
  Number of fast-food restaurants at t− 10.04 (0.07)0.04 (0.07)−0.01 (0.21)−0.15 (0.18)−0.27 (0.25)−0.43 (0.25)
  Change in number of fast-food restaurants from t− 1 to t −0.02 (0.05)0.03 (0.04)0.39 (0.13)**0.32 (0.12)**0.46 (0.16)**0.38 (0.16)*
  Population at t− 10.07 (0.04)−0.02 (0.03)0.01 (0.11)−0.04 (0.09)0.12 (0.13)0.10 (0.12)
  Change in population from t− 1 to t 0.04 (0.02)*0.04 (0.02)*0.09 (0.06)0.08 (0.05)−0.03 (0.08)−0.13 (0.07)
  Urbanicity index−0.04 (0.04)0.04 (0.04)−0.35 (0.13)**−0.05 (0.11)−0.23 (0.16)0.09 (0.15)
  Region (ref = south)
   Northeast0.07 (0.10)0.02 (0.08)0.26 (0.29)0.60 (0.23)*0.37 (0.36)0.73 (0.31)*
   Coastal0.13 (0.10)0.06 (0.08)0.63 (0.30)*1.02 (0.24)***0.42 (0.36)0.93 (0.32)**
   Inland0.16 (0.09)0.03 (0.07)0.51 (0.27)0.74 (0.22)***0.59 (0.33)1.12 (0.29)***
 N628257526326581164025946
Urban
 Individual level
  Intercept3.03 (0.32)***2.84 (0.39)***16.48 (1.09)***15.37 (1.06)***49.26 (1.85)***49.41 (2.19)***
  Baseline anthropometric−0.13 (0.01)***−0.13 (0.01)***−0.33 (0.02)***−0.32 (0.02)***−0.60 (0.02)***−0.58 (0.02)***
  Year 2006 (ref = 2004)0.10 (0.08)0.23 (0.08)**0.26 (0.21)0.38 (0.21)−0.09 (0.26)0.04 (0.25)
  Age−0.06 (0.07)−0.30 (0.07)***1.12 (0.20)***0.25 (0.17)1.58 (0.24)***0.55 (0.21)**
  Education (ref = no/primary)
   Junior high0.10 (0.12)0.00 (0.13)0.21 (0.32)−0.64 (0.32)*−0.19 (0.38)−0.47 (0.40)
   Senior high−0.02 (0.12)0.00 (0.13)−0.46 (0.32)−0.60 (0.32)−0.85 (0.39)*−0.12 (0.40)
  Household income−0.01 (0.03)−0.05 (0.04)−0.02 (0.08)0.02 (0.08)−0.04 (0.10)0.09 (0.09)
  Currently married (ref = no)−0.07 (0.11)0.09 (0.13)0.22 (0.27)0.51 (0.33)0.34 (0.34)0.63 (0.40)
  Drinking (ref = no)−0.17 (0.13)0.09 (0.09)0.17 (0.34)0.45 (0.21)*1.10 (0.43)*0.70 (0.26)**
  Smoking (ref = no)−0.23 (0.24)−0.07 (0.08)0.38 (0.61)−0.11 (0.21)−0.28 (0.77)0.04 (0.25)
  Heavy PA (ref = no)0.09 (0.23)0.03 (0.18)−0.10 (0.60)0.48 (0.45)−0.06 (0.72)0.62 (0.54)
 Neighbourhood level
  Number of fast-food restaurants at t− 10.01 (0.06)−0.04 (0.08)0.57 (0.23)*0.31 (0.21)0.76 (0.26)**0.35 (0.23)
  Change in number of fast-food restaurants from t− 1 to t −0.03 (0.04)0.03 (0.04)−0.22 (0.12)−0.09 (0.12)−0.53 (0.14)***−0.19 (0.14)
  Population at t− 1−0.06 (0.03)*−0.05 (0.03)0.00 (0.11)0.04 (0.09)0.10 (0.14)−0.08 (0.12)
  Change in population from t− 1 to t 0.07 (0.03)*0.00 (0.03)−0.12 (0.08)−0.09 (0.08)−0.21 (0.10)*0.11 (0.10)
  Urbanicity index−0.06 (0.09)0.12 (0.11)−0.27 (0.33)0.09 (0.30)−0.01 (0.41)−0.24 (0.37)
  Region (ref = South)
   Northeast0.18 (0.14)0.19 (0.17)−0.19 (0.59)0.24 (0.48)0.34 (0.71)1.10 (0.62)
   Coastal0.18 (0.13)0.15 (0.17)0.16 (0.56)0.59 (0.47)−0.80 (0.69)−0.06 (0.60)
   Inland0.12 (0.12)0.22 (0.15)0.54 (0.52)0.79 (0.43)1.24 (0.64)*1.20 (0.56)*
 N283924752864250228612491
  • *p<0.05, **p<0.001, ***p<0.001 (Bayesian p values, truncated to these standard classical cutpoints for significance) parentheses are SEs.

  • PA, physical activity.