Table 4

Adjusted odds of experiencing ‘some or severe’ problems across EQ-5D dimensions

Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Anxiety/depressionMobilityPainSelf-careUsual activities
Body mass index (kg/m2)
 18.5 to <25RefRefRefRefRef
 <18.51.25 (0.85 to 1.83)0.91 (0.52 to 1.60)1.15 (0.77 to 1.71)0.43 (0.13 to 1.47)1.61 (0.94 to 2.76)
 25 to <301.03 (0.92 to 1.16)1.18 (1.02 to 1.38)1.19 (1.08 to 1.33)*0.89 (0.69 to 1.14)1.08 (0.93 to 1.25)
 30 to <401.06 (0.93 to 1.21)2.00 (1.71 to 2.34)**1.67 (1.48 to 1.89)**1.27 (0.99 to 1.63)1.48 (1.27 to 1.74)**
 40+1.59 (1.18 to 2.13)*5.31 (3.91 to 7.22)**2.58 (2.03 to 3.29)**2.69 (1.76 to 4.12)**2.14 (1.56 to 2.92)**
 Missing1.17 (1.01 to 1.36)2.52 (2.12 to 2.99)**1.57 (1.37 to 1.81)**2.43 (1.89 to 3.13)**2.05 (1.74 to 2.42)**
Alcohol consumption
 Never-drinkerRefRefRefRefRef
 ≤4/day (men) or ≤3/day (women)0.85 (0.75 to 0.96)0.87 (0.76 to 1.00)0.91 (0.81 to 1.02)0.86 (0.70 to 1.06)0.79 (0.69 to 0.91)*
 >4 and ≤8(men) or >3 and ≤6(women)0.91 (0.78 to 1.06)0.76 (0.64 to 0.91)*0.89 (0.79 to 1.02)0.59 (0.43 to 0.80)**0.65 (0.54 to 0.77)**
 >8/day (men) or >6/day (women)0.93 (0.80 to 1.07)0.88 (0.73 to 1.06)0.92 (0.80 to 1.05)0.73 (0.54 to 1.00)0.71 (0.59 to 0.85)*
 Ex-drinker1.60 (1.31 to 1.96)**1.49 (1.19 to 1.86)**1.21 (1.01 to 1.46)1.47 (1.10 to 1.96)*1.31 (1.05 to 1.64)
 Missing0.84 (0.44 to 1.60)0.67 (0.24 to 1.86)1.21 (0.70 to 2.09)0.83 (0.17 to 4.17)0.39 (0.15 to 0.99)
Smoking
 Never-smokerRefRefRefRefRef
 Light <10/day1.44 (1.20 to 1.73)**1.55 (1.21 to 1.98)**1.49 (1.25 to 1.77)**0.92 (0.60 to 1.41)1.39 (1.09 to 1.76)
 Moderate 10–<20/day1.55 (1.31 to 1.83)**1.69 (1.38 to 2.07)**1.34 (1.15 to 1.55)**1.30 (0.95 to 1.77)1.46 (1.19 to 1.78)**
 Heavy 20+/day1.82 (1.48 to 2.24)**1.87 (1.49 to 2.34)**1.54 (1.29 to 1.85)**1.94 (1.40 to 2.69)**1.76 (1.41 to 2.20)**
 Ex-smoker1.18 (1.06 to 1.33)*1.40 (1.23 to 1.58)**1.28 (1.16 to 1.40)**1.37 (1.13 to 1.66)*1.37 (1.21 to 1.55)**
 Missing1.60 (0.75 to 3.45)2.30 (0.92 to 5.76)0.98 (0.44 to 2.18)1.02 (0.16 to 6.58)0.95 (0.37 to 2.41)
Fruit and vegetable intake
 5 or more portions/dayRefRefRefRefRef
 3 to <5 portions/day0.99 (0.87 to 1.11)0.88 (0.77 to 1.02)0.88 (0.80 to 0.98)0.84 (0.68 to 1.05)0.89 (0.78 to 1.02)
 1 to <3 potions/day1.02 (0.90 to 1.17)0.91 (0.79 to 1.05)0.91 (0.82 to 1.01)0.74 (0.58 to 0.93)0.94 (0.81 to 1.09)
 <1 portions/day1.17 (0.97 to 1.40)1.03 (0.83 to 1.28)1.01 (0.85 to 1.20)0.98 (0.73 to 1.33)1.01 (0.81 to 1.26)
Physical activity
 5 moderate 30 min episodes a weekRefRefRefRefRef
 3 vigorous 30 min and 5 moderate 30 min a week1.15 (0.93 to 1.42)0.81 (0.55 to 1.19)0.86 (0.71 to 1.05)0.93 (0.32 to 2.67)0.66 (0.45 to 0.98)
 3 vigorous 30 min episodes a week1.09 (0.75 to 1.58)0.56 (0.26 to 1.20)0.64 (0.44 to 0.94)1.88 (0.51 to 6.89)0.78 (0.39 to 1.56)
 Active but not meeting recommended levels1.27 (1.12 to 1.44)**1.69 (1.43 to 1.99)**1.12 (1.01 to 1.25)1.85 (1.25 to 2.73)*1.62 (1.37 to 1.92)**
 Inactive2.01 (1.75 to 2.30)**5.53 (4.70 to 6.50)**2.08 (1.85 to 2.35)**11.62 (8.08 to 16.73)**5.81 (4.89 to 6.90)**
 Missing1.32 (0.59 to 2.96)1.47 (0.57 to 3.78)0.79 (0.39 to 1.57)(omitted)1.14 (0.41 to 3.22)
  • Fully adjusted for age, sex, ethnic origin, marital status, social class, educational attainment and equivalised income.

  • *Significant p<0.05 after Bonferroni adjustment (adjusted α 0.05/12).

  • **Significant p<0.001 after Bonferroni adjustment (adjusted α 0.001/12).