Table 3

Associations of changes in number of fast-food restaurants from t to t +1 with concurrent weight changes from t to t +1

Body mass indexWaist-to-height ratioWaist-to-hip ratio
WomenMenWomenMenWomenMen
Rural sample
 Individual level
  Intercept2.85 (0.21)***3.45 (0.22)***16.59 (0.65)***16.52 (0.61)***50.59 (1.15)***46.76 (1.25)***
  Baseline anthropometric−0.13 (0.01)***−0.15 (0.01)***−0.32 (0.01)***−0.35 (0.01)***−0.60 (0.01)***−0.55 (0.01)***
  Year 2004 (ref = 2000)−0.13 (0.05)*−0.09 (0.05)−0.57 (0.14)***−0.51 (0.13)***−0.50 (0.16)**−0.36 (0.16)*
  Age−0.13 (0.05)**−0.32 (0.04)***0.71 (0.13)***0.12 (0.11)1.17 (0.15)***0.30 (0.14)*
  Education (ref = no/primary)
   Junior high−0.03 (0.07)0.04 (0.06)−0.31 (0.17)0.15 (0.15)−0.60 (0.20)**0.20 (0.19)
   Senior high−0.06 (0.10)−0.02 (0.08)−0.37 (0.25)0.10 (0.20)−1.02 (0.31)***0.17 (0.25)
  Household income0.03 (0.04)0.00 (0.04)0.06 (0.10)0.05 (0.09)0.16 (0.12)0.13 (0.12)
  Currently married (ref = no)0.10 (0.08)0.06 (0.08)0.10 (0.20)0.51 (0.19)**0.39 (0.24)0.57 (0.23)*
  Drinking (ref = no)0.14 (0.09)0.15 (0.05)**0.03 (0.23)0.29 (0.13)*0.17 (0.28)0.74 (0.17)***
  Smoking (ref = no)−0.06 (0.12)−0.11 (0.05)*−0.47 (0.31)−0.26 (0.13)*0.34 (0.37)−0.09 (0.17)
  Heavy PA (ref = no)0.20 (0.06)**−0.05 (0.06)−0.03 (0.16)−0.13 (0.15)−0.15 (0.19)−0.28 (0.19)
 Neighbourhood level
  Number of fast-food restaurants at t 0.02 (0.08)0.06 (0.08)0.30 (0.23)0.55 (0.21)**0.22 (0.28)0.34 (0.28)
  Change in number of fast-food restaurants from t to t +10.01 (0.06)0.02 (0.06)−0.10 (0.18)0.21 (0.16)−0.20 (0.22)0.18 (0.22)
  Population at t −0.04 (0.04)−0.04 (0.03)−0.11 (0.12)0.03 (0.10)−0.23 (0.15)0.01 (0.13)
  Change in population from t to t +1−0.09 (0.03)**−0.06 (0.03)*−0.11 (0.08)−0.05 (0.07)−0.25 (0.10)*−0.05 (0.09)
  Urbanicity index0.02 (0.05)0.05 (0.04)−0.36 (0.14)*−0.12 (0.13)−0.30 (0.18)0.04 (0.16)
  Region (ref = south)
   Northeast0.31 (0.10)**0.36 (0.09)***0.37 (0.31)0.90 (0.27)***0.19 (0.40)1.07 (0.33)**
   Coastal0.30 (0.10)**0.16 (0.09)0.47 (0.31)0.63 (0.27)*−0.03 (0.40)0.60 (0.34)
   Inland0.23 (0.09)**0.22 (0.08)**0.80 (0.28)**1.08 (0.25)***0.67 (0.36)1.27 (0.30)***
 N627758616305589563315953
Urban sample
 Individual level
  Intercept3.71 (0.36)***3.70 (0.36)***18.44 (1.03)***17.51 (1.06)***48.74 (1.75)***52.67 (1.97)***
  Baseline anthropometric−0.15 (0.01)***−0.14 (0.01)***−0.36 (0.02)***−0.34 (0.02)***−0.59 (0.02)***−0.61 (0.02)***
  Year 2004 (ref = 2000)−0.23 (0.09)**−0.43 (0.09)***0.26 (0.23)−0.21 (0.22)0.10 (0.28)−0.11 (0.28)
  Age−0.01 (0.07)−0.28 (0.07)***1.26 (0.19)***0.22 (0.17)1.89 (0.23)***0.57 (0.21)**
  Education (ref = no/primary)
   Junior high0.05 (0.12)−0.04 (0.13)−0.24 (0.31)−0.30 (0.31)−0.15 (0.38)−0.38 (0.39)
   Senior high−0.32 (0.13)*−0.21 (0.13)−1.00 (0.32)**−0.59 (0.31)−0.70 (0.39)−0.25 (0.39)
  Household income0.01 (0.05)−0.02 (0.05)−0.11 (0.12)−0.25 (0.12)*−0.05 (0.15)−0.04 (0.15)
  Married (ref = no)0.02 (0.10)0.10 (0.12)0.14 (0.27)0.00 (0.30)0.24 (0.32)0.56 (0.37)
  Drinking (ref = no)0.14 (0.13)−0.03 (0.09)0.36 (0.33)−0.02 (0.21)0.69 (0.41)0.54 (0.26)*
  Smoking (ref = no)−0.57 (0.24)*−0.05 (0.09)−0.46 (0.60)−0.06 (0.21)−0.14 (0.75)−0.27 (0.26)
  Heavy PA (ref = no)0.08 (0.24)0.02 (0.20)−0.03 (0.61)0.09 (0.47)0.91 (0.73)0.61 (0.58)
 Neighbourhood level
  Number of fast-food restaurants at t −0.18 (0.08)*−0.04 (0.08)−0.16 (0.23)0.28 (0.20)−0.51 (0.29)0.28 (0.27)
  Change in number of fast-food restaurants from t to t +1−0.04 (0.07)−0.03 (0.06)0.02 (0.19)0.36 (0.17)*−0.19 (0.23)0.20 (0.21)
  Population at t −0.02 (0.04)−0.01 (0.04)0.00 (0.11)−0.02 (0.10)−0.08 (0.14)0.04 (0.13)
  Change in population from t to t +1−0.02 (0.03)−0.01 (0.03)0.09 (0.09)0.03 (0.08)−0.02 (0.11)−0.01 (0.10)
  Urbanicity index0.02 (0.13)0.06 (0.13)−0.42 (0.37)−0.06 (0.33)0.08 (0.45)0.20 (0.43)
  Region (ref = south)
   Northeast0.40 (0.17)*0.27 (0.16)0.16 (0.58)0.57 (0.45)0.36 (0.68)1.11 (0.62)
   Coastal0.33 (0.17)0.25 (0.16)0.21 (0.58)0.18 (0.46)−1.05 (0.68)−0.39 (0.62)
   Inland0.19 (0.16)0.30 (0.14)*0.54 (0.52)0.65 (0.41)0.86 (0.61)1.23 (0.56)*
 N291525642924257728892521
  • *p<0.05, **p<0.001, ***p<0.001 (Bayesian p values, truncated to these standard classical cutpoints for significance).

  • Numbers in parentheses are SEs.

  • PA, physical activity.