Table 3

Crude associations (OR and 95% CI) of maternal education with other potential risk factors in the Piedmont Birth Registry (PBR) population and among the NINFEA participants

Potential risk factorsMaternal education (graduate vs non-graduate)
PBRNINFEA
OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
Alcohol during pregnancy1.09 (1.02 to 1.16)1.03 (0.78 to 1.36)
Folic acid intake1.01 (0.95 to 1.08)1.44 (0.99 to 2.10)
Parity (1+)1.11 (1.05 to 1.17)1.24 (0.92 to 1.68)
Maternal age (>32 years)2.09 (1.97 to 2.21)1.22 (0.95 to 1.57)
Low pregnancy weight gain (<10 kg)1.01 (0.94 to 1.08)1.02 (0.75 to 1.40)
Previous miscarriages0.95 (0.89 to 1.02)0.85 (0.61 to 1.18)
  • PBR, Piedmont Birth Registry.