Table 1

Findings on inequalities in intervention effect by SES

Intervention type and interventionOutcome typeFindings
Education, communication and information
 Individual or group education (with or without resource provision)Parents' child safety behavioursNo difference (13 analyses) or reduced inequalities (3 analyses) by SES (housing tenure/employment status; N of primary studies unclear)14
 Printed communication materialsAwareness of folic acid benefitsIncreased inequalities by SES (measure unclear; 1 primary study)15
 Media campaignsSmoking behaviourIncreased inequalities by SES (education/income; 18 primary studies)16
 Media campaignsFolic acid intakeIncreased inequalities by SES (measure unclear) from national campaign; with additional targeted component, no difference (1 primary study)15
 Health warnings on tobacco productsSmoking behaviourNo difference by SES (education; 2 primary studies)17
Multi-component settings-based interventions
 Multi-component school-based interventionsPhysical activity and/or healthy eating behavioursIncreased inequalities by SES (income/area-level disadvantage; two primary studies)18No difference by SES (occupational class/income; 3 primary studies)19
 School-based interventionsSmoking behaviourNo data found20
 Multi-component community-based interventionsPhysical activity behaviourNo difference by SES (education/income; 2 primary studies)21
 Community-based interventionsSmoking behaviourNo data found20
Resource provision and fiscal interventions
 Free fruit provision in schoolsHealthy eating behavioursNo difference (5 analyses) or reduced inequalities (1 analysis) by SES (parental education/income; 1 primary study)* 22
 Free folic acid supplementsFolic acid intakeReduced inequalities by SES (income; 1 primary study)15
 Tobacco price increasesSmoking behaviourReduced inequalities by SES (occupation/income), but increased inequalities by SES (education; ≥5 primary studies)17Reduced inequalities by SES (occupational status; 1 primary study)23
Regulatory and workplace interventions
 Restrictions on tobacco sales to minorsSmoking-related outcomesNo data found17 23
 Restrictions on tobacco advertisingSmoking-related outcomesNo data found17
 Workplace interventions to increase employee control or participation; changes to working hoursVarious health status outcomesReduced inequalities by SES (occupational status; 5 systematic reviews)24
 Workplace smoking bansSmoking-related outcomesIncreased inequalities by SES (occupational status/education/income; 6 primary studies)17
Other interventions
 Housing, transport, unemployment and welfare, agriculture and food, water and sanitation, adult educationAny health status outcomeNo data found25
  • * This presentation follows the analysis reported in the primary study26 rather than that in the review itself.