Age (years) at first measure | Gender | N | Inequality by maternal education at baseline (first age of assessment) | Change in inequality with each year of age | p for gender differences | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
SII (95% CI) | p Value | Interaction with age (95% CI) | p Value | |||||
Behavioural difficulties | ||||||||
Total difficulties | 7 | Combined | 8708 | −0.39 (−0.47 to −0.31) | <0.001 | 0.004 (−0.02 to 0.03) | 0.7 | 0.7 |
Hyperactivity | 7 | Male | 4443 | −0.35 (−0.46 to −0.23) | <0.001 | 0.003 (−0.03 to 0.03) | 0.9 | 0.1 |
7 | Female | 4265 | −0.51 (−0.62 to −0.39) | <0.001 | 0.01 (−0.02 to 0.04) | 0.4 | ||
Conduct problems | 7 | Combined | 8708 | −0.26 (−0.34 to −0.18) | <0.001 | −0.01 (−0.04 to 0.01) | 0.3 | 0.2 |
Peer problems | 7 | Combined | 8708 | −0.30 (−0.38 to −0.22) | <0.001 | 0.03 (0.01 to 0.06) | 0.02 | 0.4 |
Emotional problems | 7 | Combined | 8708 | −0.05 (−0.13 to 0.04) | 0.3 | −0.03 (−0.05 to −0.003) | 0.023 | 0.2 |
Educational attainment | ||||||||
Overall attainment | 11 | Combined | 10659 | 1.43 (1.37 to 1.50) | <0.001 | −0.09 (−0.11 to −0.08) | <0.001 | 0.9 |
English test scores | 11 | Combined | 10735 | 1.36 (1.30 to 1.43) | <0.001 | 0.04 (0.02 to 0.05) | <0.001 | 0.7 |
Mathematics test scores | 11 | Combined | 10812 | 1.28 (1.21 to 1.34) | <0.001 | −0.05 (−0.07 to −0.03) | <0.001 | 0.6 |
Science test scores | 11 | Combined | 10840 | 1.34 (1.28 to 1.41) | <0.001 | −0.18 (−0.20 to −0.16) | <0.001 | 0.9 |
SII represents the mean difference in SDs of the outcome between the individuals with the hypothetical highest and lowest SEP maternal education at baseline (intercept)—that is, at the first age at which outcomes were assessed. The interaction with age coefficient represents the additional change in SDs of the outcome between the hypothetical highest and lowest SEP for every 1 year increase in the child's age. 95% CIs are calculated using robust SEs. Results are adjusted for the child's exact age in weeks at the time of outcome measurement and the child's gender.
SEP, socioeconomic position; SII, slope index of inequality.