Table 4

Socioeconomic inequalities in behavioural measures and educational attainment, and changes in these over childhood

 Age (years) at first measureGenderNInequality by maternal education at baseline (first age of assessment)Change in inequality with each year of agep for gender differences
SII (95% CI)p ValueInteraction with age (95% CI)p Value
Behavioural difficulties
 Total difficulties7Combined8708−0.39 (−0.47 to −0.31)<0.0010.004 (−0.02 to 0.03)0.70.7
 Hyperactivity7Male4443−0.35 (−0.46 to −0.23)<0.0010.003 (−0.03 to 0.03)0.90.1
7Female4265−0.51 (−0.62 to −0.39)<0.0010.01 (−0.02 to 0.04)0.4
 Conduct problems7Combined8708−0.26 (−0.34 to −0.18)<0.001−0.01 (−0.04 to 0.01)0.30.2
 Peer problems7Combined8708−0.30 (−0.38 to −0.22)<0.0010.03 (0.01 to 0.06)0.020.4
 Emotional problems7Combined8708−0.05 (−0.13 to 0.04)0.3−0.03 (−0.05 to −0.003)0.0230.2
Educational attainment
 Overall attainment11Combined106591.43 (1.37 to 1.50)<0.001−0.09 (−0.11 to −0.08)<0.0010.9
 English test scores11Combined107351.36 (1.30 to 1.43)<0.0010.04 (0.02 to 0.05)<0.0010.7
 Mathematics test scores11Combined108121.28 (1.21 to 1.34)<0.001−0.05 (−0.07 to −0.03)<0.0010.6
 Science test scores11Combined108401.34 (1.28 to 1.41)<0.001−0.18 (−0.20 to −0.16)<0.0010.9
  • SII represents the mean difference in SDs of the outcome between the individuals with the hypothetical highest and lowest SEP maternal education at baseline (intercept)—that is, at the first age at which outcomes were assessed. The interaction with age coefficient represents the additional change in SDs of the outcome between the hypothetical highest and lowest SEP for every 1 year increase in the child's age. 95% CIs are calculated using robust SEs. Results are adjusted for the child's exact age in weeks at the time of outcome measurement and the child's gender.

  • SEP, socioeconomic position; SII, slope index of inequality.