Table 1

Unadjusted EQ-5D utility scores by health behavioural risk factors and socio-demographic characteristics

N (%)EQ-5D utility score, mean (95% CI)
Total14 1000.851 (0.847 to 0.855)
Body mass index (kg/m2)
 <18.5186 (1.3)0.879 (0.851 to 0.907)
 18.5 to <254367 (30.9)0.896 (0.891 to 0.902)
 25 to <304631 (32.8)0.873 (0.867 to 0.879)
 30 to <402849 (20.2)0.818 (0.809 to 0.827)
 40+263 (1.9)0.715 (0.676 to 0.753)
 Missing1804 (12.8)0.757 (0.743 to 0.772)
Alcohol intake
 Never-drinker4256 (30.2)0.818 (0.810 to 0.826)
 ≤4 units/day (men) or ≤3 units/day (women)4092 (29.0)0.857 (0.850 to 0.864)
 >4 and ≤8 (men) or >3 and ≤6 (women)2363 (16.7)0.887 (0.880 to 0.895)
 >8 units/day (men) or >6 units/day (women)2676 (19.0)0.897 (0.890 to 0.904)
 Ex-drinker629 (4.5)0.700 (0.673 to 0.728)
 Missing84 (0.6)0.914 (0.877 to 0.951)
Smoking
 Never-smoker7407 (52.5)0.879 (0.874 to 0.883)
 Light <10/day955 (6.8)0.863 (0.849 to 0.877)
 Moderate 10–<20/day1230 (8.7)0.828 (0.813 to 0.843)
 Heavy 20+/day736 (5.2)0.767 (0.745 to 0.789)
 Ex-smoker3735 (26.5)0.818 (0.810 to 0.826)
 Missing37 (0.3)0.872 (0.803 to 0.941)
Fruit and vegetable intake*
 5 or more portions/day3914 (27.7)0.862 (0.855 to 0.869)
 3 to <5 portions/day4539 (32.2)0.857 (0.851 to 0.864)
 1 <3 potions/day4462 (31.6)0.847 (0.840 to 0.854)
 <1 portions/day1187 (8.4)0.811 (0.795 to 0.827)
Physical activity
 5 moderate 30 min episodes a week3453 (24.5)0.913 (0.908 to 0.918)
 3 vigorous 30 min episodes and 5 moderate 30 min episodes a week1101 (7.8)0.940 (0.933 to 0.947)
 3 vigorous 30 min episodes a week285 (2.0)0.945 (0.932 to 0.958)
 Active but not meeting recommended levels5870 (41.6)0.883 (0.879 to 0.888)
 Inactive3346 (23.7)0.694 (0.683 to 0.705)
 Missing45 (0.3)0.918 (0.882 to 0.953)
Sex
 Male6270 (44.4)0.867 (0.861 to 0.872)
 Female7830 (55.5)0.839 (0.833 to 0.844)
Age (years)
 16–241579 (11.2)0.938 (0.932 to 0.944)
 25–342048 (14.5)0.918 (0.911 to 0.925)
 35–442563 (18.2)0.897 (0.890 to 0.904)
 45–542324 (16.5)0.856 (0.846 to 0.865)
 55–642415 (17.1)0.818 (0.808 to 0.829)
 65–741740 (12.3)0.779 (0.766 to 0.792)
 75+1431 (10.1)0.715 (0.700 to 0.729)
Ethnic origin*
 White12 842 (91.0)0.850 (0.846 to 0.854)
 Mixed142 (1.0)0.887 (0.855 to 0.919)
 Indian325 (2.3)0.880 (0.856 to 0.905)
 Pakistani174 (1.2)0.804 (0.759 to 0.849)
 Black Caribbean130 (0.9)0.833 (0.787 to 0.879)
 Black African165 (1.2)0.900 (0.872 to 0.928)
 Other322 (2.3)0.861 (0.834 to 0.888)
Marital status
 Single2679 (19.0)0.897 (0.889 to 0.904)
 Married/civil partnerships7457 (52.8)0.857 (0.852 to 0.862)
 Separated308 (2.2)0.789 (0.755 to 0.823)
 Divorced963 (6.8)0.776 (0.758 to 0.795)
 Widowed1102 (7.8)0.717 (0.699 to 0.734)
 Cohabitees1591 (11.3)0.899 (0.890 to 0.908)
Social class
 I694 (4.9)0.932 (0.923 to 0.942)
 II4253 (30.1)0.882 (0.876 to 0.889)
 IIN3170 (22.5)0.852 (0.845 to 0.860)
 IIIM2247 (15.9)0.824 (0.814 to 0.835)
 IV2269 (16.1)0.812 (0.801 to 0.823)
 V662 (4.7)0.801 (0.779 to 0.822)
 Armed forces36 (0.3)0.889 (0.819 to 0.959)
 Missing769 (5.5)0.839 (0.820 to 0.858)
Highest educational qualification*
 NVQ4/NVQ5/degree or equivalent2795 (19.8)0.922 (0.916 to 0.927)
 Higher education below degree1596 (11.3)0.868 (0.857 to 0.878)
 NVQ3/GCE A level equivalent2111 (15.0)0.903 (0.896 to 0.911)
 NVQ2/GCE O level equivalent3123 (22.1)0.866 (0.859 to 0.874)
 NVQ1/CSE other grade equivalent694 (4.9)0.831 (0.812 to 0.850)
 Foreign/other242 (1.7)0.816 (0.788 to 0.845)
 No qualification3539 (25.1)0.750 (0.741 to 0.760)
Equivalised income
 Highest quintile2533 (18.0)0.927 (0.922 to 0.933)
 2nd highest quintile2382 (16.9)0.902 (0.895 to 0.908)
 Middle quintile2262 (16.0)0.855 (0.846 to 0.865)
 2nd lowest quintile2284 (16.2)0.807 (0.796 to 0.818)
 Lowest quintile1944 (13.8)0.763 (0.750 to 0.777)
 Missing2695 (19.1)0.834 (0.825 to 0.843)
Limiting long-standing illness
 No10 612 (75.2)0.928 (0.925 to 0.930)
 Yes3488 (24.7)0.618 (0.608 to 0.629)
  • * Missing cases omitted from the analysis (n<10).