Table 1

Essential community mobilisation activities in the Avahan Common Minimum Programme (CMP)

Participatory size estimation led by state level partners32Variations of a non-mathematical method that involved a combination of geographic and social mapping combined with the iterative, intensive use of Delphi techniques33 with focus groups and key informants.
Hotspot mapping and social network analysis by peers34High-risk individuals discussed and produced maps of sex work solicitation venues and the estimated density of sex workers at these locations. Integrated the use of participatory methods.
Interpersonal communication methods by peersA facilitated approach undertaken with high-risk individuals and groups to identify barriers to risk reduction, find solutions and then identify the action needed to address issues. Tools used include discussion, audio and visual tools. Practice is linked with advocacy and with other communication initiatives.35
Micro-planning by peers36Application of outreach tool that peers used to record and analyse data on the risk and vulnerability factors of each individual they covered in outreach. Allowed for recording data daily and viewing the aggregated data at weekly and monthly intervals. Approaches incorporate methods of matrix ranking and scoring37 and participatory media using tools of visual representation.
Crisis response systems by community and NGO49Community mechanisms to address incidents of violence, to act as a deterrent against future incidents, and to tackle longer-term issues of crisis faced by high-risk individuals. Fostered locally before inclusion in the CMP.19 29 Social movements have identified and addressed discriminatory crime globally using similar approaches.38
Media monitoring and trainingMonitoring of HIV/AIDS coverage in local, state and national media outlets to track trends. Training of journalists to influence more accurate and positive stories on HIV/AIDS and high-risk individuals.
Community committeesCommittees comprised of community members including peers were established to provide an accountability mechanism between high-risk individuals and the programme. Committees were established for clinical services, outreach, advocacy, crisis management and drop-in centres, and evolved into community groups.
Leadership development and peer progressionA subset of peers and high-risk community leaders are provided leadership training and programme management exposure so that they can lead programme efforts alongside non-governmental organisation staff, act as trainers of their peers, leaders in community groups or spokespeople in their advocacy work and crisis management interventions.
Local advocacyPower analysis of the dynamics in the community and local environment to identify priorities for advocacy and training of local community groups to undertake advocacy.39
Community group developmentFacilitated organisational development activities40 strengthening the organisational capacity of formal community-based organisations at the district level and informal groups at local levels.
Network developmentFacilitated activities to enhance networking between community-based organisations in particular to enhance community organisational independence and advocacy efforts.
Access to social entitlements: ration card and voter ID cardsProgramme supported application and follow-up with government social entitlement providers to obtain access to ration (welfare) cards and IDs required for services including banks, schools and hospitals.