Table 1

The PAF (in per cent) of cause-specific and all-cause mortality in the total population given the scenario that the prevalence of physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking and BMI (separately and combined) would be found at the level currently seen in the high educational group

Cause of deathIschaemic heart diseaseCerebrovascular diseaseLung cancer% Of saved deaths from 3 causes out of saved deaths from all causesAll-cause mortality
Risk factorPAAlcoholSmokingBMIAllPAAlcoholSmokingBMIAllPAAlcoholSmokingBMIAllPAAlcoholSmokingBMIAll
Men
 Belgium2.92.33.62.210.22.00.61.90.85.00.00.013.90.013.945.181.90.43.51.77.1
 Czech Rep1.90.36.02.29.91.21.03.71.16.60.00.037.90.037.948.891.40.48.52.612.3
 Norway6.32.77.42.317.14.90.75.01.011.00.00.038.10.038.142.404.30.710.62.516.9
Women
 Belgium3.92.31.23.510.13.40.20.81.45.60.00.08.40.08.426.063.10.21.42.57.1
 Czech Rep3.50.13.33.810.43.40.12.41.77.40.00.026.20.026.239.823.00.44.13.210.4
 Norway5.81.74.22.713.35.30.43.31.39.80.00.025.60.025.646.674.60.23.31.99.6
  • The PAFs for the total population are derived from specific PAFs for each educational group. The cause-specific calculations are separate from the all-cause calculations. Education is measured on three levels: (1) primary and lower secondary education (ISCED levels 0–2), (2) higher and post-secondary education (ISCED 3–4) and (3) tertiary education (ISCED 5–6). Tobacco consumption is measured as smoking status distinguishing two categories: smokers (current, regular and occasional) versus non-smokers (ex-smokers and never-smokers). Alcohol consumption is divided into four drinking categories (‘D’): no alcohol (no drinks containing alcohol within the last year), DI (0–19.99 g of pure alcohol daily (women) and 0–39.99 g (men)), DII (20–39.99 g (women) and 40–59.99 g (male) and DIII (>40 g (women) and >60 g (men)). Physical activity is measured in three categories: sedentary or almost sedentary, middle and high level of physical activity. The measurement of BMI is based on three categories (<25, 25–30 and more than 30 kg/m2). Causes of death were coded according to the ICD 9th and 10th revision: ischaemic heart disease (ICD-9: 410–414; ICD-10: I20–I25), cerebrovascular diseases (ICD-9: 430–438; ICD-10: I60–I69) and lung cancer (ICD-9: 162–163 165; ICD-10: C33–C34, C39).

  • BMI, body mass index; PA, physical activity; PAF, population attributable fraction.