Table 6

Overall empowerment by degree of collective efficacy for achieving certain goals and for addressing specific problems among female sex workers in Mumbai and Thane, India, 2010–11

Total (N=2106)Collective efficacy for achieving certain goalsCollective efficacy for addressing specific problems
Low (N=605)Medium (N=969)High (N=532)Low (N=572)High (N=1534)
Overall empowerment
 OR (95% CI)Referent3.8 (3.0 to 4.8)4.7 (3.6 to 6.2)Referent1.5 (1.2 to 1.9)
  • Variables controlled for in the logistic regression analyses are age, education, marital status, duration into sex work, typology and study district. The summary measure of empowerment was constructed by averaging the responses to the 12 questions used for the dimensions of self- efficacy and self-confidence: her ability to use condoms, negotiate condom use, handle crises, utilise resources, identify herself as a sex worker in a group, and confidence in giving her opinion in front of a large group. The score varied from 1 to 2, which had reliability (Cronbach's alpha) of 0.78. The index score was further divided into two equal categories of overall empowerment: low (1-1.4999) and high (1.50-2.0).

  • AOR, adjusted ORs; N, total sample size in that category.