Table 3

Results of ordinary least squares regressions exploring the relationship between health behavioural risk factors and EQ-5D utility scores

Model 1 unadjustedModel 2 partially adjustedModel 3 fully adjusted
B (95% CI)B (95% CI)B (95% CI)
Body mass index (kg/m2)
 18.5 to <25RefRefRef
 <18.50.010 (−0.015 to 0.034)−0.005 (−0.029 to 0.019)0.000 (−0.024 to 0.024)
 25<30−0.019 (−0.026 to −0.011)**−0.006 (−0.013 to 0.002)−0.005 (−0.013 to 0.002)
 30 to <40−0.048 (−0.057 to −0.038)**−0.033 (−0.043 to −0.023)**−0.031 (−0.041 to −0.020)**
 40+−0.124 (−0.158 to −0.090)**−0.117 (−0.150 to −0.083)**−0.105 (−0.137 to −0.072)**
 Missing−0.080 (−0.094 to −0.066)**−0.066 (−0.080 to −0.052)**−0.064 (−0.078 to −0.051)**
Alcohol intake
 Never-drinkerRefRefRef
 ≤4/day (men) or ≤3/day (women)0.018 (0.009 to 0.027)**0.028 (0.019 to 0.037)**0.013 (0.004 to 0.023)
 >4 and ≤8(men) or >3 and ≤6(women)0.034 (0.024 to 0.043)**0.036 (0.026 to 0.046)**0.019 (0.009 to 0.029)**
 >8/day (men) or >6/day (women)0.040 (0.030 to 0.050)**0.026 (0.016 to 0.036)**0.011 (0.001 to 0.021)
 Ex-drinker−0.084 (−0.110 to −0.057)**−0.073 (−0.098 to −0.047)**−0.074 (−0.099 to −0.048)**
 Missing0.042 (0.016 to 0.068)*0.008 (−0.017 to 0.033)0.003 (−0.023 to 0.029)
Smoking
 Never-smokerRefRefRef
 Light <10/day−0.034 (−0.048 to −0.021)**−0.044 (−0.058 to −0.031)**−0.031 (−0.045 to −0.018)**
 Moderate 10–<20/day−0.049 (−0.063 to −0.036)**−0.055 (−0.068 to −0.041)**−0.033 (−0.047 to −0.019)**
 Heavy 20+/day−0.084 (−0.105 to −0.064)**−0.087 (−0.107 to −0.067)**−0.062 (−0.082 to −0.042)**
 Ex-smoker−0.046 (−0.055 to −0.038)**−0.027 (−0.036 to −0.019)**−0.023 (−0.031 to 0.014)**
 Missing0.005 (−0.051 to 0.061)−0.022 (−0.074 to 0.029)0.008 (−0.060 to 0.043)
Fruit and vegetable intake
 5 or more portions/dayRefRefRef
 3 to <5 portions/day0.011 (0.002 to 0.019)0.009 (0.001 to 0.018)0.012 (0.004 to 0.021)*
 1 to <3 potions/day0.009 (0.000 to 0.018)0.000 (−0.009 to 0.009)0.008 (−0.001 to 0.017)
 <1 portions/day−0.008 (−0.024 to 0.009)−0.023 (−0.039 to −0.007)*−0.010 (−0.026 to 0.006)
Physical activity
 5 moderate 30 min episodes a weekRefRefRef
 3 vigorous 30 min and 5 moderate 30 min a week0.017 (0.009 to 0.025)**−0.003 (−0.012 to 0.006)−0.008 (−0.017 to 0.000)
 3 vigorous 30 min episodes a week0.025 (0.011 to 0.038)**0.008 (−0.005 to 0.022)−0.001 (−0.014 to 0.013)
 Active but not meeting recommended levels−0.021 (−0.028 to −0.015)**−0.014 (−0.020 to −0.007)**−0.017 (−0.024 to −0.010)**
 Inactive−0.177 (−0.189 to −0.164)**−0.147 (−0.161 to −0.134)**−0.142 (−0.155 to −0.129)**
 Missing0.017 (−0.018 to 0.051)0.019 (−0.013 to 0.052)0.021 (−0.013 to 0.055)
Sex
 MaleRefRef
 Female−0.016 (−0.023 to −0.009)**−0.014 (−0.021 to −0.006)**
Age (years)
 16–24RefRef
 25–34−0.015 (−0.026 to −0.005)*−0.033 (−0.046 to −0.021)**
 35–44−0.033 (−0.044 to −0.022)**−0.046 (−0.061 to −0.032)**
 45–54−0.068 (−0.080 to −0.056)**−0.080 (−0.095 to −0.065)**
 55–64−0.094 (−0.107 to −0.081)**−0.100 (−0.115 to −0.084)**
 65–74−0.116 (−0.131 to −0.101)**−0.107 (−0.125 to −0.088)**
 75+−0.138 (−0.155 to −0.122)**−0.119 (−0.140 to −0.098)**
Ethnic origin
 WhiteRef
 Mixed0.004 (−0.023 to 0.032)
 Indian0.007 (−0.015 to 0.028)
 Pakistani−0.038 (−0.085 to 0.008)
 Black Caribbean−0.003 (−0.039 to 0.033)
 Black African0.042 (0.014 to 0.070)*
 Other−0.006 (−0.030 to 0.018)
Marital status
 SingleRef
 Married/civil partnerships0.006 (−0.005 to 0.017)
 Separated−0.055 (−0.087 to −0.023)*
 Divorced−0.035 (−0.054 to −0.015)*
 Widowed−0.017 (−0.039 to 0.005)
 Cohabitees−0.005 (−0.017 to 0.007)
Social class
 IRef
 II−0.015 (−0.027 to −0.004)
 IIN−0.019 (−0.032 to −0.006)
 IIIM−0.031 (−0.046 to −0.017)**
 IV−0.033 (−0.048 to −0.018)**
 V−0.025 (−0.048 to −0.003)
 Armed forces−0.036 (−0.086 to 0.014)
 Missing−0.042 (−0.062 to −0.022)**
Highest educational qualification
 NVQ4/NVQ5/degree or equivalentRef
 Higher education below degree−0.017 (−0.028 to −0.006)*
 NVQ3/GCE A level equivalent−0.005 (−0.015 to 0.005)
 NVQ2/GCE O level equivalent−0.006 (−0.015 to 0.004)
 NVQ1/CSE other grade equivalent−0.012 (−0.030 to 0.006)
 Foreign/other0.008 (−0.020 to 0.036)
 No qualification−0.032 (−0.046 to −0.019)**
Equivalised income
 Highest quintileRef
 2nd highest quintile−0.015 (−0.023 to −0.006)*
 Middle quintile−0.023 (−0.033 to −0.012)**
 2nd lowest quintile−0.051 (−0.063 to −0.038)**
 Lowest quintile−0.071 (−0.086 to −0.057)**
 Missing−0.027 (−0.038 to −0.017)**
Constant0.937 (0.926 to 0.948)0.987 (0.974 to 1.000)1.057 (1.040 to 1.074)
Adjusted R2 0.1800.2100.232
  • Model 1: unadjusted; model 2: partially adjusted for age and sex; model 3: fully adjusted for age, sex, ethnic origin, marital status, social class, educational attainment and equivalised income.

  • *Significant p<0.05 after Bonferroni adjustment (adjusted α 0.05/5 for model 1; 0.05/7 for model 2; 0.05/12 for model 3).

  • **Significant p<0.001 after Bonferroni adjustment (adjusted α 0.001/5 for model 1; 0.001/7 for model 2; 0.001/12 for model 3).

  • Missing cases omitted from the analysis (n<10).