Table 3

Cause-specific mortality (RR) by educational group for men and women in three European countries and scenario RRs (with percentage reduction of inequality as compared with the original RRs) based on the assumption that the prevalence of physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking and BMI (both separately and combined) would be distributed as in the highest educational group

Educational level originalRR scenarioRRPhysical activity scenarioRRAlcohol scenarioRRSmoking scenarioRRBMI scenarioRRall factors combined
LowMiddleLow% RedMiddle% RedLow% RedMiddle% RedLow% RedMiddle% RedLow% RedMiddle% RedLow% RedMiddle% Red
Ischaemic heart disease
Men
  Belgium1.391.211.34131.2041.34111.2061.32171.18151.35101.1991.19521.1528
  Czech Rep2.471.382.4141.3722.4601.3822.29121.33122.4051.3732.16211.3119
  Norway1.691.321.55201.26211.62101.3071.50281.25221.6471.29101.17761.1651
Women
  Belgium1.641.041.57111.03321.6071.0491.6231.02511.57101.02381.41361.0180
  Czech Rep2.261.262.1861.23122.2601.2602.1871.19262.1681.2481.94251.2023
  Norway1.721.261.60171.21181.6951.2461.62141.22151.6781.23101.31571.1638
Cerebrovascular disease
Men
  Belgium1.411.191.3791.1921.4031.1841.3781.1781.3931.1841.3251.1615
  Czech Rep2.521.282.4921.2732.5021.2742.4171.25102.4921.2722.31141.2317
  Norway1.381.201.29241.15221.3741.1931.27281.16211.3641.1971.07801.1144
Women
  Belgium1.381.061.33141.05141.3811.0611.3741.05251.3661.0691.27281.0435
  Czech Rep1.961.091.8971.07271.9501.0911.961.05491.9241.08111.76211.0544
  Norway1.351.121.26251.08321.3921.1231.29181.09241.3361.11101.11701.0654
Lung cancer
Men
  Belgium2.181.432.1801.4302.1801.4301.83291.29322.1801.4301.78341.3126
  Czech Rep3.991.833.9901.8303.9901.8302.31561.41503.9901.8302.22591.4348
  Norway1.991.431.9901.4301.9901.4301.05950.951111.9901.4300.711301.0394
Women
  Belgium1.411.231.4101.2301.4101.2301.27331.08661.4101.2301.27351.1439
  Czech Rep1.561.421.5601.4201.5601.4201.14750.911211.5601.4201.08871.1467
  Norway2.191.402.1901.4002.1901.4001.47611.09772.1901.4001.42651.1074
  • In three cases, the reduction of inequality in per cent is larger than 100, which means that the social gradient in cause-specific mortality is reversed.