Table 1

Prospective association of 25(OH)D3, 25(OH)D2, phosphate, calcium and PTH concentrations (assessed at mean age of 9.8 years with key stage 3 scores (assessed at age 13–14 years) (n=3171)

ExposureOutcomeSD change in outcome per doubling of exposure (95% CI)
Model 1Model 2Model 3
25(OH)D3 English total score0.01 (−0.01 to 0.03)0.01 (−0.01 to 0.03)0.00 (−0.02 to 0.02)
Maths total score0.00 (−0.02 to 0.03)0.00 (−0.02 to 0.03)0.00 (−0.02 to 0.03)
Science total score0.01 (−0.01 to 0.03)0.00 (−0.01 to 0.02)0.01 (−0.01 to 0.02)
25(OH)D2 English total score−0.07 (−0.10 to −0.04)−0.05 (−0.08 to −0.02)−0.05 (−0.08 to −0.01)
Maths total score0.02 (−0.01 to 0.06)0.03 (0.00 to 0.07)0.03 (0.00 to 0.06)
Science total score−0.03 (−0.06 to 0.01)−0.01 (−0.05 to 0.02)−0.01 (−0.05 to 0.02)
Albumin-adjusted calciumEnglish total score−0.01 (−0.03 to 0.01)0.00 (−0.01 to 0.02)0.01 (−0.01 to 0.03)
Maths total score0.00 (−0.02 to 0.02)0.01 (−0.01 to 0.03)0.01 (−0.01 to 0.03)
Science total score0.00 (−0.03 to 0.02)0.01 (−0.01 to 0.03)0.00 (−0.02 to 0.02)
PhosphateEnglish total score0.01 (−0.01 to 0.03)0.00 (−0.02 to 0.02)0.00 (−0.02 to 0.02)
Maths total score0.00 (−0.02 to 0.02)−0.01 (−0.03 to 0.01)−0.01 (−0.03 to 0.01)
Science total score0.03 (0.01 to 0.05)0.02 (0.00 to 0.04)0.02 (−0.01 to 0.04)
Parathyroid hormoneEnglish total score−0.01 (−0.03 to 0.01)−0.02 (−0.04 to 0.00)−0.02 (−0.04 to 0.00)
Maths total score0.00 (−0.02 to 0.03)0.00 (−0.02 to 0.03)0.01 (−0.02 to 0.03)
Science total score0.00 (−0.02 to 0.02)0.00 (−0.02 to 0.02)0.00 (−0.02 to 0.02)
  • Model 1 is unadjusted (the exposures are standardised for age and gender and 25(OH)D3 is adjusted for season and ethnicity).

  • Model 2 same as model 1 plus adjustment for ethnicity, head of household social class, mothers and partners education, time spent outdoors during summer (age 8.5 years), use of sunblock, hat, covering clothing, avoidance of midday sun, body mass index and eligibility for free school meals.

  • Model 3 same as model 2 plus adjustment for serum concentrations of other hormones/metabolites, which are related 25(OH)D3 homoeostasis (eg, association of 25(OH)D3 is adjusted for 25(OH)D2, phosphate, albumin-adjusted calcium and parathyroid hormone).