Table 4

Effects of home visit on parenting stress, social capital and perceived emotional support from others

Pair-analysisMultivariate*
Baseline (mean, SD)Follow-up (mean, SD)Difference95% CIβ95% CI
Parenting stress total
 No-home visit35.1 (8.3)33.6 (9.0)−1.54−3.17 to 0.09Reference
 Home-visit service for newborn only39.3 (8.1)37.4 (9.6) −1.99 −3.86 to −0.12 1.16−1.25 to 3.57
 Home-visit project for all infants only34.3 (9.0)32.5 (9.1) −1.74 −2.86 to −0.62 −0.50−2.44 to 1.43
 Both home-visit projects38.0 (7.4)34.4 (8.9) −3.67 −6.01 to −1.27 −1.33−4.01 to 1.34
 p for ANOVA <0.001 0.006 0.43
Child-related parenting stress
 No home visit20.1 (5.0)18.9 (5.5) −1.24 −2.24 to −0.24 Reference
 Home-visit service for newborn only22.3 (5.4)20.6 (5.4) −1.72 −2.97 to −0.48 0.67−0.78 to 2.12
 Home-visit project for all infants only19.2 (5.5)18.1 (5.3) −1.09 −1.86 to −0.32 −0.02−1.19 to 1.15
 Both home-visit projects21.1 (5.1)18.7 (5.1) −2.40 −3.73 to −1.07 −0.61−2.22 to 1.01
 p for ANOVA 0.001 0.025 0.40
Mother-related parenting stress
 No home visit15.0 (4.0)14.7 (4.2)−0.30−1.19 to 0.59Reference
 Home-visit service for newborn only17.1 (4.2)16.8 (5.1)−0.27−1.24 to 0.710.72−0.53 to 1.98
 Home-visit project for all infants only15.1 (4.5)14.4 (4.5) −0.65 −1.20 to −0.11 −0.55−1.56 to 0.45
 Both home-visit projects16.9 (3.6)15.7 (4.5)−1.27−2.59 to 0.05−0.70−2.09 to 0.70
 p for ANOVA 0.001 0.004 0.50
Social trust
 No home visit2.40 (0.81)2.52 (0.76)0.11−0.02 to 0.24Reference
 Home-visit service for newborn only2.29 (0.93)2.58 (0.79) 0.27 0.07 to 0.46 0.15−0.05 to 0.35
 Home-visit project for all infants only2.75 (0.76)2.82 (0.79)0.06−0.03 to 0.160.06−0.10 to 0.22
 Both home-visit projects2.30 (0.79)2.32 (0.77)0.02−0.16 to 0.20−0.12−0.34 to 0.10
 p for ANOVA <0.001 <0.001 0.14
Sense of security
 No home visit2.93 (0.64)2.89 (0.75)−0.04−0.20 to 0.11Reference
 Home-visit service for newborn only2.97 (0.78)2.95 (0.74)−0.02−0.20 to 0.170.11−0.09 to 0.31
 Home-visit project for all infants only3.04 (0.67)3.14 (0.63) 0.10 0.01 to 0.20 0.11−0.05 to 0.27
 Both home-visit projects2.68 (0.67)2.73 (0.79)0.05−0.14 to 0.23−0.08−0.30 to 0.14
 p for ANOVA 0.025 0.002 0.35
Before (N, %)After (N, %)Difference (%) 95% CI
Perceived emotional support scale from others (score 8+)
 No home visit61 (69.3)66 (75.9)4.7−3.3 to 12.6Reference
 Home-visit service for newborn only43 (70.5)48 (76.2)6.8−2.7 to 16.31.970.61 to 6.38
 Home-visit project for all infants only110 (74.8)118 (81.4) 7.7 0.8 to 14.5 1.350.52 to 3.51
 Both home-visit projects29 (70.7)33 (78.6) 10 0.3 to 19.7 2.010.50 to 8.18
 p for χ2 test0.800.740.89
  • Values in bold are significant at the p=0.05 level.

  • * Adjusted for mother's age, working status when pregnant, child's sex, child's age (week), preterm, number of children at home, type of house, city, duration of years living in the current city, living with relatives, subjective socioeconomic status, parenting stress scale at 1 month, social trust at 1 month, sense of security at 1 month, perceived emotional support from others at 1 month (score 8+ or not).ANOVA, analysis of variance.