Table 1

Adiposity and blood pressure in men and women (mean and SD), estimate of change with age and test for gender differences

Cardiovascular disease risk factorMenWomenp Value for gender difference
NMean (SD)NMean (SD)
BMI (kg/m2)
 36 years163224.8 (3.2)164823.6 (4.1)<0.001
 43 years161725.7 (3.5)160825.2 (4.8)<0.001
 53 years145227.4 (4.0)149627.4 (5.5)0.815
 10-yearly change*1.54 (1.45 to 1.64)2.31 (2.21 to 2.40)<0.001
Waist circumference (cm)
 36 years164389.7 (11.6)165877.0 (9.4)<0.001
 43 years160991.9 (9.9)161377.9 (11.2)<0.001
 53 years145497.7 (10.8)150785.9 (12.9)<0.001
 10-yearly change*4.90 (4.61 to 5.20)5.49 (5.20 to 5.77)0.005
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)
 36 years1640123.0 (15.1)1651117.7 (15.5)<0.001
 43 years1596125.4 (15.9)1590121.7 (16.7)<0.001
 53 years1452141.2 (20.7)1478133.8 (20.7)<0.001
 10-yearly change*11.0 (10.4 to 11.7)9.8 (9.1 to 10.4)0.006
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)
 36 years163878.7 (12.6)165075.4 (12.2)<0.001
 43 years159682.2 (12.2)159077.3 (12.6)<0.001
 53 years145287.9 (12.7)147882.4 (12.0)<0.001
 10-yearly change*5.6 (5.1 to 6.0)4.3 (3.9 to 4.8)<0.001
  • * Linear change with age with 95% CI estimated with mixed models and the p value for the interaction of gender by age (a significant p value indicates a different change in outcome with age in men and women).

  • Linear regression based test for gender difference in outcome at each age.