Table 3

Results from two-level multivariate regression models

Use of modern contraceptionUse of ANCUse of SBA
Model 1Model 2††Model 1Model 2††Model 1Model 2††
OR (CI)OR (CI)OR (CI)OR (CI)OR (CI)OR (CI)
Fixed effect
 Community-level variables
  CHW presence
   No CHW (reference group)
   At least one female CHW1.63** (1.20 to 2.20)1.61** (1.21 to 2.15)2.81*** (1.91 to 4.10)2.71*** (1.87 to 3.92)1.82** (1.20 to 2.75)1.75** (1.18 to 2.58)
   Only male CHW1.07 (0.72 to 1.60)1.17 (0.80 to 1.72)0.79 (0.45 to 1.38)0.8 (0.46 to 1.39)0.98 (0.58 to 1.67)1.03 (0.62 to 1.71)
  Average walking time to nearest health facility from each EU
   <2 h (reference group)
    2 to <3 h0.51** (0.33 to 0.77)0.58* (0.38 to 0.89)0.48** (0.29 to 0.80)0.58* (0.34 to 0.97)0.27*** (0.15 to 0.49)0.38** (0.21 to 0.67)
    3 to <4 h0.35*** (0.20 to 0.63)0.39** (0.22 to 0.68)0.24** (0.09 to 0.61)0.32* (0.13 to 0.79)0.33* (0.11 to 0.95)0.56 (0.20 to 1.59)
    ≥4 h0.52** (0.33 to 0.83)0.63* (0.40 to 0.97)0.27*** (0.16 to 0.47)0.32*** (0.18 to 0.55)0.18*** (0.10 to 0.33)0.24*** (0.14 to 0.43)
 Household- and individual-level variables
  Wealth status
   Poorest 40% (reference group)
   Middle 40%1.22 (0.97 to 1.52)1.48** (1.13 to 1.94)1.88*** (1.38 to 2.56)
   Least poor 20%1.94*** (1.48 to 2.53)1.77** (1.27 to 1.94)3.35*** (2.31 to 4.86)
  Mother's age
   <20 yrs (reference group)
   20–24 yrs1.30 (0.85 to 1.98)0.81 (0.61 to 1.07)0.94 (0.67 to 1.32)
   25–29 yrs1.55 (0.98 to 2.44)0.62** (0.44 to 0.88)0.87 (0.58 to 1.32)
   30–34 yrs1.97** (1.22 to 3.17)0.74 (0.48 to 1.15)0.86 (0.52 to 1.42)
   35–49 yrs1.69* (1.05 to 2.72)0.54** (0.35 to 0.84)0.81 (0.47 to 1.42)
  Mother's education
   No education (reference group)
   Some education1.42* (1.05 to 1.92)1.93** (1.28 to 2.91)1.90** (1.22 to 2.96)
  Parity
   ≤2 children (reference group)
   3 to 4 children1.77*** (1.33 to 2.36)1.00 (0.74 to 1.34)0.62** (0.45 to 0.85)
   5 to 7 children2.21*** (1.60 to 3.05)1.08 (0.78 to 1.51)0.68 (0.46 to 1.00)
   >7 children1.91** (1.32 to 2.78)1.41 (0.93 to 2.14)1.16 (0.73 to 1.87)
  Other women in household
   No other married woman (ref. group)
   1–2 other married woman0.81 (0.65 to 1.01)1.05 (0.82 to 1.35)0.9 (0.70 to 1.17)
   2 or more other married women0.94 (0.63 to 1.43)0.54* (0.33 to 0.88)0.54* (0.31 to 0.92)
Random effect
 Variance (Ψ) of the random intercept (SE)1.12 (0.13)0.99 (0.13)1.69 (0.24)1.59 (0.24)1.76 (0.29)1.43 (0.25)
 Intraclass correlation (ρ)0.250.230.340.330.350.30
−2 log likelihood (random intercept model)−2602.27−2500.52−1686.28−1639.22−1335.06−1274.5
−2 log likelihood (ordinary logistic regression model)−2623.4−1764.7−1350.0
N633962693098309831183118
  • *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.

  • Model includes community-level variables only.

  • †† Model includes community-, household- and individual-level variables.

  • ANC, antenatal care; CHW, community health workers; SBA, skilled birth attendance.