Table 3

Twelve-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) scores at baseline and risk of disability pension for somatic or psychiatric diagnosis—Cox proportional hazard models

GHQ-12 score at baselineSomatic diagnosis as reason for pensionPsychiatric diagnosis as reason for pension
Model 1*Model 2Model 3Model 1*Model 2Model 3
HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)PAFHR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)PAF
01.01.01.01.01.01.0
1–22.0 (1.5 to 2.6)1.9 (1.5 to 2.5)1.7 (1.3 to 2.2)7.32.6 (1.6 to 4.2)2.4 (1.5 to 3.9)2.2 (1.4 to 3.6)6.9
3–72.4 (1.9 to 3.1)2.4 (1.8 to 3.1)1.8 (1.4 to 2.4)9.25.4 (3.6 to 8.1)4.7 (3.1 to 7.1)4.3 (2.9 to 6.5)19.0
8–124.1 (3.1 to 5.4)3.8 (2.9 to 5.0)2.5 (1.9 to 3.4)10.117.7 (12.2 to 25.7)14.4 (9.8 to 21.1)10.9 (7.3 to 16.2)38.3
Aggregate PAF:26.6Aggregate PAF:64.2
  • * Model 1: Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CIs derived from Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for age and gender.

  • Model 2: Model 1 further adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors including being born in or outside Sweden, cohabiting or living alone, employed or not, occupational socioeconomic class in seven groups, highest education status, gross household income in four quartiles, sedentary or active lifestyle, cannabis use in past year, daily smoking and body mass index.

  • Model 3: Model 2 further adjusted for self-reported daily pain (binary variable) and presence of physical illness in three groups (no physical illness, self-reported chronic physical illness diagnosed by doctor but not on secondary care-register, and secondary care diagnosis of any physical illness on register) and secondary care register diagnosis of a common mental disorder or any other psychiatric illness.

  • PAF, population attributable risk fraction.